- INVESTIGATION OF EXTERNAL RADIATION DOSES DURING RESIDENTS' TEMPORAL STAY TO NAMIE TOWN, FUKUSHIMA PREFECTURE. [Journal Article]
- RPRadiat Prot Dosimetry 2019 Apr 26
- Namie Town in Fukushima Prefecture, the majority of which was an evacuation area as a result of the effects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, carried out a 'temporal stay' in Sep…
Namie Town in Fukushima Prefecture, the majority of which was an evacuation area as a result of the effects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, carried out a 'temporal stay' in September 2016 so that residents could check their houses. Therefore, in cooperation with the town authorities, the authors distributed personal dosemeters and behaviour record forms to record the personal dose equivalent rate and investigate the relationship between residents' external radiation dose and their behaviour. When the personal dose equivalent rate was calculated from the measured personal dose equivalent per hour, the median was 0.12 μSv h-1, the maximum value and the minimum value were 0.58 and 0.06 μSv h-1, respectively. Meanwhile, since personal fluctuations were observed in personal dose equivalent, grasping the relationship between residents' behaviour and exposed dose can be applied to risk communication.
- Long-term aquaria study suggests species-specific responses of two cold-water corals to macro-and microplastics exposure. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 Jul 09; 253:322-329
- Plastic pollution has been identified as a major threat for coastal marine life and ecosystems. Here, we test if the feeding behaviour and growth rate of the two most common cold-water coral species,…
Plastic pollution has been identified as a major threat for coastal marine life and ecosystems. Here, we test if the feeding behaviour and growth rate of the two most common cold-water coral species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, are affected by micro- or macroplastic exposures. Low-density polyethylene microplastics impair prey capture and growth rates of L. pertusa after five months of exposure. Macroplastic films, mimicking plastic bags trapped on deep-sea reefs, had however a limited impact on L. pertusa growth. This was due to an avoidance behaviour illustrated by the formation of skeletal 'caps' that changed the polyp orientation and allowed its access to food supply. On the contrary, M. oculata growth and feeding were not affected by plastic exposure. Such a species-specific response has the potential to induce a severe change in coral community composition and the associated biodiversity in deep-sea environments.
- Folic acid improves abnormal behavior via mitigation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and ferroptosis in the BTBR T+ tf/J mouse model of autism. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr Biochem 2019 Jun 18; 71:98-109
- The aim of this study was to examine the effects of folic acid (FA) on the autistic phenotypes in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice and to investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice received FA (0.2 mg/kg/d…
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of folic acid (FA) on the autistic phenotypes in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice and to investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice received FA (0.2 mg/kg/day) orally from postnatal days 14 to 35. Mice were then tested for stereotyped and repetitive behaviors, social interaction, and spatial learning and memory at the end of FA supplementation. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory responses and ferroptosis-related proteins in the brain were also evaluated. FA supplementation in BTBR mice reduced repetitive and stereotyped behavior, improved social communication, and enhanced memory and spatial learning. FA supplementation also reduced neuronal loss in hippocampal CA1 regions of the brain and decreased the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Iba-1, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-a, and IL-6 and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the hippocampus. FA supplementation changed the malondialdehyde and glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities in the hippocampus. FA supplementation inhibited the elevation of the SOD1 and TFR protein levels and enhanced the relative expression levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 and ferroportin 1 in the hippocampus and increased the relative levels of phospho-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein in the hippocampus. FA oral supplementation to BTBR mice rescued stereotyped and repetitive behaviors, social deficit, and spatial learning and memory impairments, likely by improving the oxidative-stress and inflammatory responses by altering the ferroptosis signaling pathways.
- Differential associations of health literacy with Austrian adolescents' tobacco and alcohol use. [Journal Article]
- PHPublic Health 2019 Jul 16; 174:74-82
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that availability of health-related information may be insufficient on its own to prevent or reduce risky substance use. This is of particular importance for the development and improvement of primary prevention programs targeting adolescent populations.
- The influence of intention and outcome on young children's reciprocal sharing. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Child Psychol 2019 Jul 16; 187:104645
- This study investigated the influence of underlying intentions and outcomes of a partner's sharing behavior on young children's reciprocity. We provided 3- and 5-year-old children with the opportunit…
This study investigated the influence of underlying intentions and outcomes of a partner's sharing behavior on young children's reciprocity. We provided 3- and 5-year-old children with the opportunity to share with a partner following different treatments of a partner's intention (to share or not to share) that led to different outcomes (children got or did not get stickers from their partner). For the 3-year-olds, we found that the outcome of the previous interaction influenced how much they shared, whereas the intention of their partner affected how readily they initiated sharing in response to social cues. For the 5-year-olds, we found that both outcome and intention affected how much they shared as well as how readily they initiated sharing. This suggests that already 3-year-olds are able to take into account outcome and intention information separately in reciprocal sharing. However, only 5-year-olds can combine both to flexibly maintain social interactions without running the risk of being exploited by others.
- A review of the behavior of radioiodine in the subsurface at two DOE sites. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jul 11; 691:466-475
- Multiple processes affect the fate of the radioactive isotope 129I in the environment. Primary categories of these processes include electron transfer reactions mediated by minerals and microbes, ads…
Multiple processes affect the fate of the radioactive isotope 129I in the environment. Primary categories of these processes include electron transfer reactions mediated by minerals and microbes, adsorption to sediments, interactions with organic matter, co-precipitation, and volatilization. A description of dominant biogeochemical processes is provided to describe the interrelationship of these processes and the associated iodine chemical species. The majority of the subsurface iodine fate and transport studies in the United States have been conducted at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites where radioisotopes of iodine are present in the environment and stored waste. The DOE Hanford Site and Savannah River Site (SRS) are used to illustrate how the iodine species and dominant processes at a site are controlled by the prevailing site biogeochemical conditions. These sites differ in terms of climate (arid vs. sub-tropical), major geochemical parameters (e.g., pH ~7.5 vs. 4), and mineralogy (carbonate vs. Fe/Al oxide dominated). The iodine speciation and dominant processes at a site also have implications for selection and implementation of suitable remedy approaches for 129I.
- Video-tracking and high-speed bright field microscopy allow the determination of swimming and cardiac effects of D. magna exposed to local anaesthetics. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jul 02; 691:278-283
- Local anaesthetics are among the most used drugs in clinical practice, but once they are released to the environment, the effects on the aquatic fauna remain uncertain. This study evaluates, for the …
Local anaesthetics are among the most used drugs in clinical practice, but once they are released to the environment, the effects on the aquatic fauna remain uncertain. This study evaluates, for the first time, the impact of tetracaine, lidocaine and bupivacaine on the survival rate and physiological effects of cladocera Daphnia magna. Video-tracking and image processing allowed us to obtain changes in behaviour parameters like swimming average velocity and mean square displacement. We found that tetracaine shows the most severe effect. A high-speed microscopy system was also used to determine the response of D. magna heart to these drugs. Our results show that tetracaine presents dose-dependent area reduction during all cardiac cycle, while bupivacaine and lidocaine did not present significative effects on heart size. The tested drugs, at environmental high concentrations, altered behaviour, heart function and survival of D. magna.
- Associations between experiences of disrupted attachments and suicidal thoughts and behaviours: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Med 2019 Jul 10; 235:112408
- CONCLUSIONS: Two inter-related master themes were identified: 1) 'challenging relationships as catalysts for STB'; and 2) 'positive relationships as buffers against STB'. Findings indicate that experiences of early disrupted parent-child attachments may contribute to vulnerability for STB by shaping participants' perceptions of intimate others and themselves (internal working models). These working models, along with other environmental factors and life events, may increase the risk of STB through perceptions of defeat, entrapment, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Results also suggest that being exposed to respectful, caring, unconditionally accepting, reciprocal, trusting, and non-judgemental intimate adult relationships increase resilience and is associated with recovery from past STB and a reduction of current suicide risk. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
- The psychological burden of baby weight: Pregnancy, weight stigma, and maternal health. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Med 2019 Jul 09; 235:112401
- Weight stigma is increasingly prevalent, highly distressing, and associated with an array of negative health and psychological outcomes. Many of the known correlates - depression, stress, and weight …
Weight stigma is increasingly prevalent, highly distressing, and associated with an array of negative health and psychological outcomes. Many of the known correlates - depression, stress, and weight gain - have the potential to be particularly harmful in the context of pregnancy and the postpartum, a life phase in which women's social roles, body weights, and body meanings are in particular flux. Yet, there is little literature connecting the experiences of weight stigma to the wellbeing of pregnant and postpartum women. 501 pregnant (n = 143) and postpartum (n = 358) women in the United States were surveyed between August and November of 2017. They answered questions about their experiences with weight stigma and standardized scale measures of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, maladaptive dieting behavior, emotional eating behavior, gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention. Regression analyses revealed that women experiencing weight stigma from more sources reported more depressive symptoms, maladaptive dieting behavior and perceived stress when controlling for pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, weeks of pregnancy or months since birth, and demographic covariates. Weight-stigmatizing experiences were also associated with more emotional eating behavior in pregnant participants and greater postpartum weight retention in postpartum participants. This preliminary study suggests that experiencing weight stigma may contribute to unfavorable physical and mental health outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women. These findings reflect the powerful negative social meanings of weight gain faced in pregnancy and often unachievable social standards of "dropping the baby weight" as new mothers.
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- Effects of 2,4-D-based herbicide (DMA® 806) on sensitivity, respiration rates, energy reserves and behavior of tadpoles. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jul 16; 182:109446
- Increased use of sugarcane pesticides and their destination to non-target environments in Brazil has generated concerns related to the conservation of more vulnerable groups, such as amphibians. Besi…
Increased use of sugarcane pesticides and their destination to non-target environments in Brazil has generated concerns related to the conservation of more vulnerable groups, such as amphibians. Besides the high skin permeability, tadpoles are constantly restricted to small and ephemeral ponds, where exposure to high concentrations of pesticides in agricultural areas is inevitable. This study evaluated chronic effects caused by sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide on energy storage, development, respiration rates, swimming performance and avoidance behavior of bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Firstly, we conducted acute toxicity test (96 h) to estipulate sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-D and evaluate the sensitivity of three tadpoles' species to this herbicide. Results showed that Leptodactylus fuscus presented the lowest LC50 96 h, 28.81 mg/L, followed by Physalaemus nattereri (143.08 mg/L) and L. catesbeianus (574.52 mg/L). Chronic exposure to 2,4-D (125, 250 and 500 μg/L) delayed metamorphosis and inhibited the growth of tadpoles at concentrations of 125 μg/L. Effects on biochemical reserves showed that 2,4-D increased total hepatic lipids in tadpoles, although some individual lipid classes (e.g. free fatty acids and triglycerides) were reduced. Protein and carbohydrates contents were also impaired by 2,4-D, suggesting a disruption on energy metabolism of amphibians by the herbicide. In addition to biochemical changes, respiration rates and swimming speed were also decreased after chronic exposure to 2,4-D, and these responses appeared to be correlated with the changes detected in the basic energy content. Avoidance test indicated that tadpoles of L. catesbeinus avoided the presence of 2,4-D, however they were unable to detect increasing gradients of the contaminant. Our data showed that chronic exposure to 2,4-D impaired biochemical, physiological and behavioral aspects of tadpoles, which may compromise their health and make them more vulnerable to environmental stressors in natural systems.