- Erythema nodosum and sarcoid granulomas - letting the cat out of the bag. [Case Reports]
- DODermatol Online J 2018 Dec 15; 24(12)
- A 41-year-old woman presented with a violaceous papule on the dorsum of the hand, large ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy, and tender, erythematous, subcutaneous nodules on the legs. Accompanying …
A 41-year-old woman presented with a violaceous papule on the dorsum of the hand, large ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy, and tender, erythematous, subcutaneous nodules on the legs. Accompanying signs included fever, ankle swelling, and bilateral red eye. She recalled having a previous exposure to kittens one month before and had a positive family history for sarcoidosis. Histological examination of the hand lesion showed sarcoidal granulomas with positive Bartonella henselae DNA, whereas a biopsy done on the leg nodules was compatible with erythema nodosum. Cat scratch disease (CSD) typically presents as a tender regional lymphadenopathy preceded by an inoculation papule with spontaneous resolution occurring between 8-16 weeks. Cutaneous manifestations of CSD are rare, with erythema nodosum accompanying only 0.6% of cases. Although speculative, the background of a positive family history for sarcoidosis may explain the atypical presentation of this case, with red eye, persistent arthralgia, and associated sarcoidal granulomas.
- [Tetanus after cat scratch and bites in a previously immunized patient]. [Case Reports]
- RCRev Chilena Infectol 2017; 34(2):181-185
- CONCLUSIONS: Tetanus is possible in urban settings with a declining epidemiologic curve of disease in previously immunized patients. Severity of disease is modulated by previous vaccination.
- Dynamics of Co-Infection with Bartonella henselae Genotypes I and II in Naturally Infected Cats: Implications for Feline Vaccine Development. [Journal Article]
- MEMicrob Ecol 2017; 74(2):474-484
- Bartonella henselae is an emerging bacterial pathogen causing cat-scratch disease and potentially fatal bacillary angiomatosis in humans. Bacteremic cats constitute a large reservoir for human infect…
Bartonella henselae is an emerging bacterial pathogen causing cat-scratch disease and potentially fatal bacillary angiomatosis in humans. Bacteremic cats constitute a large reservoir for human infection. Although feline vaccination is a potential strategy to prevent human infection, selection of appropriate B. henselae strains is critical for successful vaccine development. Two distinct genotypes of B. henselae (type I, type II) have been identified and are known to co-infect the feline host, but very little is known about the interaction of these two genotypes during co-infection in vivo. To study the in vivo dynamics of type I and type II co-infection, we evaluated three kittens that were naturally flea-infected with both B. henselae type I and type II. Fifty individual bloodstream isolates from each of the cats over multiple time points were molecularly typed (by 16S rRNA gene sequencing), to determine the prevalence of the two genotypes over 2 years of persistent infection. We found that both B. henselae genotypes were transmitted simultaneously to each cat via natural flea infestation, resulting in mixed infection with both genotypes. Although the initial infection was predominately type I, after the first 2 months, the isolated genotype shifted to exclusively type II, which then persisted with a relapsing pattern. Understanding the parameters of protection against both genotypes of B. henselae, and the competitive dynamics in vivo between the two genotypes, will be critical in the development of a successful feline vaccine that can ultimately prevent B. henselae transmission to human contacts.
- Pet-Related Infections. [Journal Article]
- AFAm Fam Physician 2016 Nov 15; 94(10):794-802
- Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet …
Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member. Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated. Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women. Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections. People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets. Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular. Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections. Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination. The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals. Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.
- Evaluation of Cat Scratch Disease Cases Reported from Turkey between 1996 and 2013 and Review of the Literature. [Review]
- CECent Eur J Public Health 2015; 23(2):170-5
- CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis which enabled the evaluation of a large number of CSD cases, indicated that careful evaluation of clinical findings and histopathological investigation will provide valuable support for diagnosis and treatment of CSD.
- Cat scratch disease in Medellín, Colombia. [Case Reports]
- OMOxf Med Case Reports 2014; 2014(3):43-5
- Cat scratch disease (CSD) is the most common zoonosis transmitted by household animals. There is limited data on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of this disease in Colombia. The typical pr…
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is the most common zoonosis transmitted by household animals. There is limited data on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of this disease in Colombia. The typical presentation includes subacute or chronic lymph node infection following inoculation of Bartonella henselae bacilli through a cat scratch. Cats have a B. henselae seroprevalence as high as 90%. Here, we report the case of a preschool boy from a rural area of Antioquia, Colombia, who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy in the right axilla. Other important infectious etiologies were ruled out, and confirmation was made with the Warthin Starry stain of a lymph node biopsy. We also discuss the most important aspects of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease.
- Persistent cat scratch disease requiring surgical excision in a patient with MPGN. [Case Reports]
- PedPediatrics 2015; 135(6):e1514-7
- We present the case of a 13-year-old immunosuppressed patient with unrelenting cat scratch disease despite 9 months of antibiotic therapy. The patient was being treated with mycophenolate and prednis…
We present the case of a 13-year-old immunosuppressed patient with unrelenting cat scratch disease despite 9 months of antibiotic therapy. The patient was being treated with mycophenolate and prednisone for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (type 1) diagnosed 13 months before the onset of cat scratch disease. Cat scratch disease was suspected due to epitrochlear lymphadenitis and an inoculation papule on the ipsilateral thumb, and the diagnosis was confirmed by the use of acute and convalescent titers positive for Bartonella henselae. The patient experienced prolonged lymphadenitis despite azithromycin and rifampin therapy, and she developed a draining sinus tract ∼4 months after initial inoculation while receiving antibiotics. Acute exacerbation of the primary supratrochlear node prompted incision and drainage of the area, with no improvement in the disease course. Ultimately, excision of all affected nodes and the sinus tract 9 months after the initial diagnosis was required to achieve resolution. Bartonella was detected at a high level according to a polymerase chain reaction assay in the excised nodes. Persistent treatment with oral antibiotics may have prevented disseminated infection in this immunosuppressed patient. Surgical excision of affected nodes should be considered in patients with cat scratch disease that persists beyond 16 weeks.
- Detection of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in cats with sporotrichosis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Feline Med Surg 2014; 16(4):308-11
- Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused …
Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases.
- Cat scratch disease presenting as breast cancer: a report of an unusual case. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Oncol Med 2013; 2013:507504
- Benign lymphoreticulosis (cat scratch disease, CSD) may have a clinical course that varies from the most common lymphadenitis localized in the site of inoculation, preceded by the typical "primary le…
Benign lymphoreticulosis (cat scratch disease, CSD) may have a clinical course that varies from the most common lymphadenitis localized in the site of inoculation, preceded by the typical "primary lesion," to a context of severe systemic involvement. Among these uncommon clinical aspects, there is mammarian granulomatous lymphadenitis which may appear as a mastitis or a solitary intraparenchymal mass, giving the impression of a breast tumor. In these cases, intensive clinical, instrumental, and laboratory investigations are necessary to exclude malignancy. Because of its rarity, in equivocal cases, it is reasonable to use surgical excision for accurate histological examination. We report a case of CSD of the breast in a 59-year-old woman, analyzing the clinical, histopathological, and instrumental appearance and also performing a literature review.
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- Concomitant cat scratch disease and squamous cell carcinoma in a cardiac transplant. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Dis Rep 2012 Jan 02; 4(1):e2
- Cat scratch disease has been reported very rarely in cardiac transplant recipients. In a review of 1073 episodes of infection in 620 heart transplant patients over a 16 year period, only one case of …
Cat scratch disease has been reported very rarely in cardiac transplant recipients. In a review of 1073 episodes of infection in 620 heart transplant patients over a 16 year period, only one case of infection secondary to Bartonella henselae was documented. Another case of hepatosplenic bacillary angiomatosis from B. henselae was reported 2 decades ago in a heart transplant recipient who had presented with fevers of unknown origin. Although the typical clinical manifestation is that of a skin lesion accompanied with lymphadenopathy, cat scratch disease may present with persistent fevers without a clinically overt infective focus in immunosuppressed individuals. Moreover, more than one disease process may coexist in immunocompromised hosts. While the lymphadenopathy in our patient was secondary to Cat scratch disease, interestingly, the adjacent skin lesion that was thought to represent unhealed site of inoculation of Bartonella was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma.