- Datenschutzkonforme Validierung von Routinedaten – Die IDOMENEO Methode. [Journal Article]
- GGesundheitswesen 2019 May 23
- Recently, health insurance claims have regained the attention of the scientific community as a source of real-world evidence in health care research and quality improvement. To date, very few studies…
Recently, health insurance claims have regained the attention of the scientific community as a source of real-world evidence in health care research and quality improvement. To date, very few studies are available which investigate the validity of health insurance claims; these may be affected by bias from several sources, such as possible upcoding of co-morbidities and complications for reimbursement advantages. The IDOMENEO study investigates the inpatient treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) comprehensively using various data sources with a consortium involving experts from health care research and data privacy, a large health insurance fund, biostatisticians, jurists, and computer scientists. Prospective registry data were collected from 30-40 vascular centres in Germany using the GermanVasc registry. In addition, health insurance claims data were prospectively collected from BARMER, the second largest health insurance fund in Germany. The consortium is currently developing a data privacy compliant method of health insurance claims data validation, the methodological foundations of which are described here.
- Association between hair lead levels and autism spectrum disorder in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- PRPsychiatry Res 2019 May 15; 276:239-249
- A number of studies measured lead levels in hair from children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to detect the relationship between cumulated lead exposure and the development of ASD, but results a…
A number of studies measured lead levels in hair from children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to detect the relationship between cumulated lead exposure and the development of ASD, but results are inconsistent. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis using the published studies to explore the actual association of hair lead levels with ASD in children. We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases (up to December 11, 2018). The random-effects model was applied to summarize effect sizes. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed simultaneously. Twenty eligible studies involving 1787 participants (941 autistic children and 846 healthy subjects) were included. Our results of primary analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of hair lead between children with ASD and healthy individuals (Hedges's g = 0.251; 95% confidence interval: -0.121, 0.623; P = 0.187). We identified 2 sources of between-study heterogeneity: analytical technology and the sample size of patients. Additionally, no publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, this study does not support the association of hair lead levels with ASD in children, and the involvement of cumulated lead exposure in the occurrence of ASD.
- Measuring perceived mistreatment across diverse social groups: An evaluation of the Everyday Discrimination Scale. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Med 2019 May 14; 232:298-306
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results urge caution when drawing comparisons of perceived discrimination across diverse social groups based on the EDS and point to avenues for future scale development.
- Efficacy and potential determinants of exercise therapy in knee and hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- APAnn Phys Rehabil Med 2019 May 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Exercise significantly reduces pain and improves function, performance and QoL in people with knee and hip OA as compared with usual care at 8 weeks. The effects are maximal around 2 months and thereafter slowly diminish, being no better than usual care at 9 to 18 months. Participants with younger age, knee OA and not awaiting joint replacement may benefit more from exercise therapy. These potential determinants, identified by study-level analyses, may have implied ecological bias and need to be confirmed with individual patient data.
- Clinical research designs to study treatment effects for multidrug-resistant bacteria. [Editorial]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2019 May 20
- To accompany a theme issue on the treatment of three multidrugresistant (MDR) bacteria, the current editorial summarizes the poor state of the evidence on the optimal antibiotic treatment of carbapen…
To accompany a theme issue on the treatment of three multidrugresistant (MDR) bacteria, the current editorial summarizes the poor state of the evidence on the optimal antibiotic treatment of carbapenemresistant. Gram-negative bacteria. We propose observational study designs addressing the main areas of bias in existing observational data:selection bias due to treatment by indication and standardization of the treatment groups. We propose novel randomized control trial (RCT) designs that will allow efficient and cost-effective recruitment of patients with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Registry-based RCTs with adaptive designs could make use of existing MDR surveillance systems. Non-inferiority plus superiority hybrid designs may combine a. non-inferiority aim in the entire sample with a superiority design for the MDR subgroup. A paradigm shift is needed in clinical study design to create a solid evidence-base for the optimal treatment of MDR bacteria.
- Prevalence of trial registration varies by study characteristics and risk of bias. [Review]
- JCJ Clin Epidemiol 2019 May 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Trial registration is an imperfect proxy for risk of bias. Systematic reviewers should assess risk of bias on a case-by-case basis and conduct sensitivity analyses excluding high risk of bias studies. In the longer term, mechanisms should be implemented to facilitate prospective registration of all trials.
- Oral turmeric/curcumin effects on inflammatory markers in chronic inflammatory diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Review]
- PRPharmacol Res 2019 May 20; :104280
- Turmeric extract or active component curcumin may have anti-inflammatory effects in people with chronic inflammatory diseases. The effect of turmeric or curcumin on a wide range of inflammatory marke…
Turmeric extract or active component curcumin may have anti-inflammatory effects in people with chronic inflammatory diseases. The effect of turmeric or curcumin on a wide range of inflammatory markers has not been evaluated in a systematic review. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of oral turmeric or curcumin on inflammatory markers (CRP, hsCRP, IL-1, IL-6, TNF) in patients with a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases. Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane library were evaluated until June 2018. Random effects meta-analyses with inverse variance methods and stratified by turmeric or curcumin were performed. Effects were expressed as mean differences (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Risk of bias of RCTs was evaluated with the Cochrane tool. Nineteen RCTs were identified; included patients had rheumatic diseases, advanced chronic kidney disease with hemodialysis, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Turmeric was the intervention in 5 RCTs (n = 356) and curcumin/curcuminoids in 14 RCTs (n = 988). Follow up times ranged between 4 and 16 weeks. One RCT had high risk of bias. In comparison to controls, turmeric or curcumin did not significantly decrease levels of CRP (MD -2.71 mg/L, 95%CI -5.73 to 0.31, p = 0.08, 5 studies), hsCRP (MD -1.44 mg/L, 95%CI -2.94 to 0.06, p = 0.06, 6 studies), IL-1 beta (MD -4.25 pg/mL, 95%CI -13.32 to 4.82, p = 0.36, 2 studies), IL-6 (MD -0.71 pg/mL, 95%CI -1.68 to 0.25, p = 0.15), and TNF alpha (MD -1.23 pg/mL, 95%CI -3.01 to 0.55, p = 0.18, 7 studies). There were no differences between turmeric and curcumin interventions. High heterogeneity of effects was observed for all markers across studies, except hsCRP. Other inflammatory markers such as IL-1 alpha, TNF beta, IL-17, and IL-22 had scarce data. Turmeric or curcumin did not decrease several inflammatory markers in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases.
- Cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis. [Review]
- NBNeurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 May 20
- We aimed at clarifying the strength and consistency of the association between cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of ob…
We aimed at clarifying the strength and consistency of the association between cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies providing cross-sectional and longitudinal data on the association between cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts in adults with bipolar disorder. We screened articles indexed in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO databases up to July 2018. The random-effects meta-analysis, based on 6,375 subjects from eleven studies, estimated a cross-sectional association between cannabis use disorder and history of suicide attempts (OR = 1.35; p = 0.01; I2 = 41.7%). Meta-regression analyses showed that effect size was not influenced by any study characteristics. Publication bias was not detectable. We could not perform a meta-analysis exploring the longitudinal association between cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts, due to the lack of suitable data. The current evidence highlights a weak association between cannabis use disorder and suicidal attempts in bipolar disorder. Due to the cross-sectional design of included studies, causal inferences could not be explored.
- Validation of Polar OH1 optical heart rate sensor for moderate and high intensity physical activities. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0217288
- CONCLUSIONS: Polar OH1 demonstrates high level of agreement with the criterion measure ECG HR, thus can be used as a valid measure of HR in lab and field settings during moderate and high intensity physical activities.
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- Transcripts with systematic nucleotide deletion of 1-12 nucleotide in human mitochondrion suggest potential non-canonical transcription. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0217356
- Raw transcriptomic data contain numerous RNA reads whose homology with template DNA doesn't match canonical transcription. Transcriptome analyses usually ignore such noncanonical RNA reads. Here, ana…
Raw transcriptomic data contain numerous RNA reads whose homology with template DNA doesn't match canonical transcription. Transcriptome analyses usually ignore such noncanonical RNA reads. Here, analyses search for noncanonical mitochondrial RNAs systematically deleting 1 to 12 nucleotides after each transcribed nucleotide triplet, producing deletion-RNAs (delRNAs). We detected delRNAs in the human whole cell and purified mitochondrial transcriptomes, and in Genbank's human EST database corresponding to systematic deletions of 1 to 12 nucleotides after each transcribed trinucleotide. DelRNAs detected in both transcriptomes mapped along with 55.63% of the EST delRNAs. A bias exists for delRNAs covering identical mitogenomic regions in both transcriptomic and EST datasets. Among 227 delRNAs detected in these 3 datasets, 81.1% and 8.4% of delRNAs were mapped on mitochondrial coding and hypervariable region 2 of dloop. Del-transcription analyses of GenBank's EST database confirm observations from whole cell and purified mitochondrial transcriptomes, eliminating the possibility that detected delRNAs are false positives matches, cytosolic DNA/RNA nuclear contamination or sequencing artefacts. These detected delRNAs are enriched in frameshift-inducing homopolymers and are poor in frameshift-preventing circular code codons (a set of 20 codons which regulate reading frame detection, over- and underrepresented in coding and other frames of genes, respectively) suggesting a motif-based regulation of non-canonical transcription. These findings show that rare non-canonical transcripts exist. Such non canonical del-transcription does increases mitochondrial coding potential and non-coding regulation of intracellular mechanisms, and could explain the dark DNA conundrum.