- Winter's bite: Beech trees survive complete defoliation due to spring late-frost damage by mobilizing old C reserves. [Journal Article]
- NPNew Phytol 2019 Jul 08
- Late frost can destroy the photosynthetic apparatus of trees. We hypothesized that this can alter the normal cyclic dynamics of C-reserves in the wood. We measured soluble sugar concentrations and ra…
Late frost can destroy the photosynthetic apparatus of trees. We hypothesized that this can alter the normal cyclic dynamics of C-reserves in the wood. We measured soluble sugar concentrations and radiocarbon signatures (Δ14 C) of soluble non-structural carbon (NSC) in woody tissues sampled from a Mediterranean beech forest that was completely defoliated by an exceptional late frost in 2016. We used the bomb radiocarbon approach to estimate the time elapsed since fixation of mobilized soluble sugars. During the leafless period after the frost event, soluble sugar concentrations declined sharply while Δ14 C of NSC increased. This can be explained by the lack of fresh assimilate supply and a mobilization of C from reserve pools. Soluble NSC became increasingly older during the leafless period, with a maximum average age of 5 years from samples collected 27 days before canopy recovery. Following leaf re-growth, soluble sugar concentrations increased and Δ14 C of soluble NSC decreased, indicating the allocation of new assimilates to the stem soluble sugars pool. These data highlight that beech trees rapidly mobilize reserve C to survive strong source/sink imbalances, e.g. due to late frost, and show that NSC is a key trait for tree resilience under global change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Reply to Snowdon et al. and Piepho: Genetic response diversity to provide yield stability of cultivar groups deserves attention. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 May 28; 116(22):10627-10629
- Implications of crop model ensemble size and composition for estimates of adaptation effects and agreement of recommendations. [Journal Article]
- AFAgric For Meteorol 2019 Jan 15; 264:351-362
- Climate change is expected to severely affect cropping systems and food production in many parts of the world unless local adaptation can ameliorate these impacts. Ensembles of crop simulation models…
Climate change is expected to severely affect cropping systems and food production in many parts of the world unless local adaptation can ameliorate these impacts. Ensembles of crop simulation models can be useful tools for assessing if proposed adaptation options are capable of achieving target yields, whilst also quantifying the share of uncertainty in the simulated crop impact resulting from the crop models themselves. Although some studies have analysed the influence of ensemble size on model outcomes, the effect of ensemble composition has not yet been properly appraised. Moreover, results and derived recommendations typically rely on averaged ensemble simulation results without accounting sufficiently for the spread of model outcomes. Therefore, we developed an Ensemble Outcome Agreement (EOA) index, which analyses the effect of changes in composition and size of a multi-model ensemble (MME) to evaluate the level of agreement between MME outcomes with respect to a given hypothesis (e.g. that adaptation measures result in positive crop responses). We analysed the recommendations of a previous study performed with an ensemble of 17 crop models and testing 54 adaptation options for rainfed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Lleida (NE Spain) under perturbed conditions of temperature, precipitation and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Our results confirmed that most adaptations recommended in the previous study have a positive effect. However, we also showed that some options did not remain recommendable in specific conditions if different ensembles were considered. Using EOA, we were able to identify the adaptation options for which there is high confidence in their effectiveness at enhancing yields, even under severe climate perturbations. These include substituting spring wheat for winter wheat combined with earlier sowing dates and standard or longer duration cultivars, or introducing supplementary irrigation, the latter increasing EOA values in all cases. There is low confidence in recovering yields to baseline levels, although this target could be attained for some adaptation options under moderate climate perturbations. Recommendations derived from such robust results may provide crucial information for stakeholders seeking to implement adaptation measures.
- Heat Stress Perception among Native and Migrant Workers in Italian Industries-Case Studies from the Construction and Agricultural Sectors. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2019 03 27; 16(7)
- Climate change will increase the frequency and severity of hazard events such as heat waves, with important effects in several European regions. It is of importance to consider overall effects as wel…
Climate change will increase the frequency and severity of hazard events such as heat waves, with important effects in several European regions. It is of importance to consider overall effects as well as specific impact on vulnerable population groups such as outdoor workers. The agricultural and construction sectors represent two strategic occupational fields that in relatively recent years involve an increasing number of migrant workers, and therefore require a better management of cultural aspects, that may interact with and impact on heat-related health risk. For this reason, the present study evaluated heat-stress perception and management among native and immigrant workers in Europe. As part of the EU's Horizon 2020 HEAT-SHIELD project (grant agreement No. 668786), two agricultural and one construction companies, traditionally employing migrant workers, were evaluated with a questionnaire survey during the summer months of 2017. The data collected (104 case studies) were analyzed using descriptive statistics (Chi-squared tests) and the analysis of variance was performed with ANOVA test. From the results, migrant workers declared that work required greater effort than do native Italian workers (χ² = 17.1, p = 0.001) but reported less impact from heat on productivity (χ² = 10.6; p = 0.014) and thermal discomfort. In addition, migrant workers were mainly informed through written or oral communications, while native workers received information on heat-health issues through training courses. These findings are of importance for future information and mitigation actions to address socio-cultural gaps and reduce heat-stress vulnerability.
- Effects of heat on first-ever strokes and the effect modification of atmospheric pressure: A time-series study in Shenzhen, China. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Mar 01; 654:1372-1378
- CONCLUSIONS: High temperatures in hot months may trigger first-ever strokes, and low atmospheric pressure may exacerbate the effect. We mainly found associations between heat and first-ever strokes for intracerebral hemorrhage, middle-aged and old patients, as well as immigrant patients.
- Estimation of work-related injury and economic burden attributable to heat stress in Guangzhou, China. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 May 20; 666:147-154
- CONCLUSIONS: Heat stress can contribute to higher risk of work-related injury and substantial economic costs. Quantified the impacts of injuries and related economic costs should be considered to develop targeted preventive measures in the context of climate change.
- Publisher Correction: Stand age and species richness dampen interannual variation of ecosystem-level photosynthetic capacity. [Journal Article]
- NENat Ecol Evol 2019; 3(3):501
- In the version of this Article originally published, the wrong Supplementary Information pdf was uploaded, in which the figures did not correspond with those mentioned in the main text and the R code…
In the version of this Article originally published, the wrong Supplementary Information pdf was uploaded, in which the figures did not correspond with those mentioned in the main text and the R code was not presented properly. This has now been replaced.
- Wild ungulates and environmental temperature: analysis on the possible utilization of data from sensor placed on GPS collars. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biometeorol 2019; 63(3):293-300
- GPS collars for wildlife provide a large amount of spatio-temporal location data and are frequently equipped with sensors that record the animal-level environmental temperature at a schedulable sampl…
GPS collars for wildlife provide a large amount of spatio-temporal location data and are frequently equipped with sensors that record the animal-level environmental temperature at a schedulable sampling frequency. The simultaneous collection of environmental temperature and animal location may contribute not only to deepen the understanding of animal behavior in different climatic conditions, but also to increase the knowledge of climate features in inaccessible areas. The measurement of environmental temperature provided by the sensors, however, can be biased by several factors (e.g., surface temperature of the animal, direct solar radiation, precipitation), so in-depth studies are required to verify the correlation. The aim of this study was to identify an equation for correcting the collar-recorded temperature data, allowing to improve and refine the results obtained by the analysis of spatial data and to highlight the environmental factors having the greatest impact on the accuracy of the measures. Temperature data from GPS collars were obtained within a research on spatial behavior on 11 hinds while spatialized temperature data were obtained from LAMMA-IBIMET dataset. These data showed high correlation and an identical trend, although the GPS collar temperature data was always higher. This model could represent a tool to obtain an accurate measurement of temperatures in complex geographical areas with wild animals but low density of weather stations. The availability of corrected temperature data, recorded simultaneously with the animal location, could be useful for a more accurate comprehension of animal behavior in free-ranging conditions, both in case of forthcoming studies and to valorize existing datasets.
- Evaluation of the impact of heat stress on the occurrence of occupational injuries: Meta-analysis of observational studies. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ind Med 2019; 62(3):233-243
- CONCLUSIONS: The present findings can orient further research to assess the effects of heat at workplace and consequently to establish better health policies for managing such exposure in at-risk regions.
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- Decline in climate resilience of European wheat. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 01 02; 116(1):123-128
- Food security relies on the resilience of staple food crops to climatic variability and extremes, but the climate resilience of European wheat is unknown. A diversity of responses to disturbance is c…
Food security relies on the resilience of staple food crops to climatic variability and extremes, but the climate resilience of European wheat is unknown. A diversity of responses to disturbance is considered a key determinant of resilience. The capacity of a sole crop genotype to perform well under climatic variability is limited; therefore, a set of cultivars with diverse responses to weather conditions critical to crop yield is required. Here, we show a decline in the response diversity of wheat in farmers' fields in most European countries after 2002-2009 based on 101,000 cultivar yield observations. Similar responses to weather were identified in cultivar trials among central European countries and southern European countries. A response diversity hotspot appeared in the trials in Slovakia, while response diversity "deserts" were identified in Czechia and Germany and for durum wheat in southern Europe. Positive responses to abundant precipitation were lacking. This assessment suggests that current breeding programs and cultivar selection practices do not sufficiently prepare for climatic uncertainty and variability. Consequently, the demand for climate resilience of staple food crops such as wheat must be better articulated. Assessments and communication of response diversity enable collective learning across supply chains. Increased awareness could foster governance of resilience through research and breeding programs, incentives, and regulation.