- Role of and Recent Evidence for Antiplatelet Therapy in Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes. [Review]
- CCCurr Cardiol Rep 2019 Jun 28; 21(8):78
- When treating patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), the benefits of antiplatelet therapy in preventing cardiovascular disease must be weighed against an increased risk of bleeding. Recent trials have…
When treating patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), the benefits of antiplatelet therapy in preventing cardiovascular disease must be weighed against an increased risk of bleeding. Recent trials have sought to determine both the optimal anti-platelet regimen for patients with DM, and who specifically requires medication among the DM population. This paper will review recent trials and evidence recommending the use of antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.
- Intraoperative Unfractionated Heparin Unresponsiveness during Endovascular Repair of a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm following Administration of Andexanet Alfa for the Reversal of Rivaroxaban. [Case Reports]
- PPharmacotherapy 2019 Jun 28
- The authors describe a case of unfractionated heparin (UFH) unresponsiveness in the operating room secondary to reversal of rivaroxaban with coagulation factor Xa (recombinant) inactivated-zhzo (ande…
The authors describe a case of unfractionated heparin (UFH) unresponsiveness in the operating room secondary to reversal of rivaroxaban with coagulation factor Xa (recombinant) inactivated-zhzo (andexanet alfa). A 70-year-old man with a known 4.5- to 5.0-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm and atrial fibrillation managed with rivaroxaban presented with severe right-sided flank pain radiating to the left side of his abdomen. Computed tomography-angiography on arrival demonstrated a left retroperitoneal hematoma and a suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. He received andexanet alfa to reverse rivaroxaban prior to an emergent endovascular aneurysm repair. During surgery, he received a total of 14,000 units (167 units/kg) of UFH with minimal changes in activated clotting time (132-144 sec; baseline 135 sec [reference range 74-137 sec]). This case highlights the potential complications of using UFH anticoagulation following reversal of factor Xa inhibitors with andexanet alfa and underscores the importance of peri-procedural anticoagulation planning. For patients who require intra-operative anticoagulation, providers should consider anticoagulation reversal with prothrombin complex concentrate instead of andexanet alfa or administration of a parenteral direct thrombin inhibitor, such as argatroban or bivalirudin during the surgical procedure.
- Antithrombotic Management during Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair with the Mitraclip System in a Patient with Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia. [Case Reports]
- TOTH Open 2018; 2(4):e387-e390
- Interventional cardiology procedures require full anticoagulation to prevent thrombus formation on catheters and devices with potential development of embolic complications. Bivalirudin, a short half…
Interventional cardiology procedures require full anticoagulation to prevent thrombus formation on catheters and devices with potential development of embolic complications. Bivalirudin, a short half-life direct thrombin inhibitor, has been largely used during percutaneous coronary interventions and represents the preferred alternative to heparin in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). However, few data are available about intraprocedural use of bivalirudin during transcatheter structural heart disease interventions. Activated clotting time (ACT) monitoring during bivalirudin infusion presents some limitations and it is not mandatory. We report a case of bivalirudin use in a patient with type-2 HIT during percutaneous mitral valve repair with the Mitraclip system (Abbott, Abbott Park, Illinois, United States). Despite use of standard bivalirudin dose (0.75 mg/kg bolus and 1.4 mg/kg/min infusion-reduced infusion rate was motivated by a glomerular filtration rate of 37 mL/min), the patient developed a large thrombus on the second clip during its orientation toward the mitral orifice. ACT was measured at that time and was suboptimal (240 seconds). The case was successfully managed with clip and thrombus retrieval, adjunctive 0.3 mg/kg bivalirudin bolus and increased infusion rate, and clip repositioning with ACT monitoring. This report makes the case for mandatory ACT checking and drug titration during high-risk catheter-based structural heart disease interventions, even when thromboprophylaxis is performed with bivalirudin. Additional coagulation tests may be useful to monitor bivalirudin response in similar cases.
- Bivalirudin versus Heparin during intervention in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials. [Journal Article]
- CHCardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 2019 Jun 26
- CONCLUSIONS: Bivalirudin demonstrates its superiority over heparin plus GPI with better clinical outcomes in terms of preventing bleeding complications, thus making it as an anticoagulation of choice particularly in patients at high risk of bleeding. Further studies are warranted for head to head comparison of bivalirudin to heparin monotherapy to establish an optimal heparin dosing regimen and post-PCI bivalirudin infusion to affirm its beneficial effect in reducing acute ST.
- Postprocedure bivalirudin infusion for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. [Journal Article]
- CCCatheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 Jun 26
- Radial versus femoral access in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing invasive management: A prespecified subgroup analysis from VALIDATE-SWEDEHEART. [Journal Article]
- EHEur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2019 Jun 25; :2048872618817217
- CONCLUSIONS: Transradial access was associated with lower risk of death, myocardial infarction or major bleeding at 180 days. Bivalirudin was not associated with less bleeding, irrespective of access site.
- Potential Role of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in the Management of Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia. [Review]
- PPharmacotherapy 2019 Jun 24
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition secondary to unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin exposure. This immune-mediated drug reacti…
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition secondary to unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin exposure. This immune-mediated drug reaction manifests as thrombocytopenia with a paradoxical hypercoagulable state that can result in life-threatening thrombosis. It is imperative to ensure cessation of heparin-based products as soon as HIT is identified. Traditional treatment options include argatroban, bivalirudin, fondaparinux, and danaparoid with a transition to warfarin upon platelet recovery. These anticoagulants are notwithstanding limitations including parenteral administration and routine laboratory monitoring leading to prolonged hospitalizations, emphasizing the need for new therapies. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been increasingly investigated for the management of HIT and may overcome the aforementioned challenges of current therapies. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the current HIT guidelines, discuss limitations to contemporary treatment options, provide insight into the emerging evidence for the DOACs rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran, and conclude with a clinical summary for their use in this setting. The PubMed, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature from January 1, 2012, to June 31, 2018. Twenty-seven articles met inclusion criteria for review: 1 prospective trial, 5 retrospective cohort studies, and 21 case reports totaling 104 patients treated with a DOAC for HIT. The DOACs prevented new and recurrent thrombosis in 98% (n=102) of cases, and bleeding complications occurred in 3% (n=3). While current literature remains limited, it is suggestive of a potential role of DOACs for HIT, which has led to their integration into the 2018 American Society Hematology Guidelines with a conditional recommendation.
- A systematic review and meta-analysis of bivalirudin application in peripheral endovascular procedures. [Review]
- JVJ Vasc Surg 2019; 70(1):274-284.e5
- CONCLUSIONS: Compared with UFH, PEPs using BIV had comparable procedural success rates and odds of perioperative transient ischemic attack and hemorrhagic stroke. However, procedures with BIV had a lower but nonsignificant odds of perioperative bleeding and transfusion. Depending on the procedures conducted, the patients who received BIV will have reduced or comparable odds of perioperative mortality, myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiovascular events, net adverse clinical events, and major and minor vascular complications. Therefore, BIV may be chosen solely as an alternative procedural anticoagulant to UFH for PEPs.
- Revacept, a Novel Inhibitor of Platelet Adhesion, in Patients Undergoing Elective PCI-Design and Rationale of the Randomized ISAR-PLASTER Trial. [Journal Article]
- THThromb Haemost 2019 Jun 21
- Despite dual antiplatelet therapy patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) continue to experience periprocedural ischemic events. In addition, all currently used antithrombotic dr…
Despite dual antiplatelet therapy patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) continue to experience periprocedural ischemic events. In addition, all currently used antithrombotic drugs increase the bleeding risk. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for antithrombotic strategies with improved efficacy and no increase in bleeding. Revacept is a novel, lesion-directed antithrombotic drug that does not interfere with the function of circulating platelets. This dimeric fusion protein of the extracellular domain of glycoprotein VI (the major platelet collagen receptor) and the human Fc-fragment inhibits collagen-mediated platelet adhesion and subsequent aggregation at the site of vascular injury. The randomized, double-blinded, phase II ISAR-PLASTER trial is based on extensive preclinical evaluation of Revacept and a favorable first-in-man trial. A total of 332 patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective PCI will be randomized to either Revacept 160 mg, Revacept 80 mg, or placebo administered as single intravenous infusion directly before the intervention, on top of standard dual antiplatelet therapy and either heparin or bivalirudin, based on local practice and current guidelines. The primary endpoint is the composite of death or myocardial injury (defined as increase in high sensitivity troponin T ≥ 5 times the upper limit of normal) at 48 hours. The safety endpoint is bleeding of class 2 or higher according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium at 30 days. This phase II randomized, double blind trial will assess for the first time the efficacy and safety of Revacept-a lesion-directed inhibitor of platelet adhesion-in patients undergoing elective PCI.
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- Use of bivalirudin as a primary anticoagulant in a child during Berlin Heart EXCOR ventricular assist device support. [Journal Article]
- PPerfusion 2019 Jun 21; :267659119855853
- We describe our experience of bivalirudin use, a newer direct thrombin inhibitor, in an infant who was supported with Berlin Heart EXCOR VAD (Berlin VAD) as bridge to transplant for 122 days without …
We describe our experience of bivalirudin use, a newer direct thrombin inhibitor, in an infant who was supported with Berlin Heart EXCOR VAD (Berlin VAD) as bridge to transplant for 122 days without complications and without need for pump exchange. An 11-month-old girl with dilated cardiomyopathy with acute heart failure was awaiting cardiac transplant. Lack of improvement despite maximizing medical therapy and anticipating a prolonged waitlist time, she was supported with Berlin LVAD as a bridge to transplant. Anticoagulation with bivalirudin was started and titrated with a goal partial thromboplastin time of 60-90 seconds. Therapeutic anticoagulation was achieved with bivalirudin for 50% of the days (61/122 days) on a dose of 2.1 mg/kg/hour and in a narrow dose range of 1.9 to 2.3 mg/kg/hour for 80% of the days (98/122 days). Antiplatelet regimen was started initially with aspirin and clopidogrel added later. She was supported for 122 days on a single pump without any evidence of thrombus or need for pump change. Berlin VAD explant and orthotopic heart transplant with biatrial anastomosis were performed uneventfully. Explanted Berlin VAD had no evidence of clot/fibrin or thrombus formation. The child was discharged to home uneventfully 15 days after cardiac transplant.