- Programmed Cell Death 1 and Programmed Cell Death Ligands in Extranodal Natural Killer/T Cell Lymphoma: Expression Pattern and Potential Prognostic Relevance. [News]
- AHActa Haematol 2019 Jul 22; :1-11
- The programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligands (PD-1/PD-Ls) axis is a potential immune escape mechanism of cancers. However, data on the PD-1/PD-Ls pathway in EBV-associated extranodal nat…
The programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligands (PD-1/PD-Ls) axis is a potential immune escape mechanism of cancers. However, data on the PD-1/PD-Ls pathway in EBV-associated extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) and its clinical implication are limited. Herein, we characterized PD-1/PD-L expression and its prognosis relevance in 49 ENKTL patients in Thailand. PD-L1 was expressed frequently on both lymphoma cells (61.2%) and stroma (77.5%), whereas PD-L2 expression was more common on lymphoma (63.2%) than stromal cells. PD-1 was positive in 20.5% of stroma, but undetectable on lymphoma cells. There was no association between baseline clinical characteristics and the expression PD-1/PD-Ls. The survival of patients with PD-Ls on tumor cells was poor. For PD-L1-positive versus negative cases, the 2-year event-free survival (EFS) was 42.2 versus 71.8% (p = 0.03) and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 45.4 versus 78.9% (p = 0.02), respectively. Comparing between patients with PD-L2-positive and PD-L2-negative lymphoma, the 2-year EFS was 37.1 versus 82.4% (p = 0.02) and 2-year OS was 45.2 versus 82.4% (p = 0.03), respectively. Neither PD-1 nor PD-Ls expression in the stroma predicted outcomes. In conclusion, PD-Ls were frequently expressed on ENKTL cells and associated with inferior outcomes. Therefore, PD-Ls are potential prognostic biomarkers and the roles of immune checkpoint blockade therapy in ENKTL deserve further investigation.
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors and type 1 diabetes mellitus: a case report and systematic review. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Endocrinol 2019 Jul 01
- CONCLUSIONS: ICI-related diabetes mellitus is a rare but often life-threatening metabolic urgency of which health-care professionals and patients should be aware. Close monitoring of blood glucose and prompt endocrine investigation in case of hyperglycemia is advisable. Predisposing factors such as HLA genotype might explain why some individuals are at risk.
- Altered frequency and function of spleen CTLA-4+Tim-3+ T cells are associated with miscarriage. [Journal Article]
- BRBiol Reprod 2019 Apr 26
- Normal pregnancy is associated with several immune adaptations in both systemic and local maternal-fetal interface to allow the growth of semi-allogeneic conceptus. A failure in maternal immune toler…
Normal pregnancy is associated with several immune adaptations in both systemic and local maternal-fetal interface to allow the growth of semi-allogeneic conceptus. A failure in maternal immune tolerance to the fetus may result in abnormal pregnancies, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The regulation of T cell homeostasis during pregnancy has important implications for maternal tolerance and immunity. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4(CTLA-4) and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) are important negative immune regulatory molecules involved in viral persistence and tumor metastasis. Here we described the lower frequency of splenic T cells co-expressing CTLA-4 and Tim-3 accompanied by higher levels of pro-inflammatory but lower anti-inflammatory cytokines production in abortion-prone mouse model. Blockade CTLA-4 and Tim-3 pathways leaded to the dysfunction of splenic T cells. By the higher expression during normal pregnancy, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 co-expression on splenic T cells linked to immunosuppressive phenotype. As the spleen is an important site for peripheral immune activation, our data suggest potential non-invasive biomarkers and therapeutic targets for miscarriage.
- In situ vaccination with defined factors overcomes T cell exhaustion in distant tumors. [Journal Article]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 2019 Jul 22; 130
- Irreversible T cell exhaustion limits the efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade. We observed that dual CD40-TLR4 stimulation within a single tumor restored PD-1 sensitivity and that thi…
Irreversible T cell exhaustion limits the efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade. We observed that dual CD40-TLR4 stimulation within a single tumor restored PD-1 sensitivity and that this regimen triggered a systemic tumor-specific CD8+ T cell response. This approach effectively treated established tumors in diverse syngeneic cancer models, and the systemic effect was dependent on the injected tumor, indicating that treated tumors were converted into necessary components of this therapy. Strikingly, this approach was associated with the absence of exhausted PD-1hi T cells in treated and distant tumors, while sparing the intervening draining lymph node and spleen. Furthermore, patients with transcription changes like those induced by this therapy experienced improved progression-free survival with anti-PD-1 treatment. Dual CD40-TLR4 activation within a single tumor is thus an approach for overcoming resistance to PD-1 blockade that is unique in its ability to cause the loss of exhausted T cells within tumors while sparing nonmalignant tissues.
- Ferrimagnetic Vortex Nanorings-Mediated Mild Magnetic Hyperthermia Imparts Potent Immunological Effect for Treating Cancer Metastasis. [Journal Article]
- ANACS Nano 2019 Jul 22
- Cancer metastasis is a serious concern and a major reason of treatment failure. Herein, we have reported the development of an effective and safe nanotherapeutic strategy which can eradicate primary …
Cancer metastasis is a serious concern and a major reason of treatment failure. Herein, we have reported the development of an effective and safe nanotherapeutic strategy which can eradicate primary tumors, inhibit metastasizing to lung, and control the metastasis/growth of distant tumors. Briefly, ferrimagnetic vortex-domain iron oxide nanorings (FVIOs)-mediated mild magnetic hyperthermia caused calreticulin (CRT) expression on the 4T1 breast cancer cells. The CRT expression transmitted an "eat-me" signal and promoted phagocytic uptake of cancer cells by immune system to induce an efficient immunogenic cell death, further leading to the macrophages polarization. This mild thermotherapy promoted 88% increase of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes infiltration in distant tumors and triggered immunotherapy by effectively sensitizing tumors to the PD-L1 checkpoint blockade. The percentage of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be further increased from 55.4% to 64.5% after combining with PD-L1 blockade. Moreover, the combination treatment also inhibited the immunosuppressive response of anti-tumor, evidenced by significant down-regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Our results revealed that the FVIOs-mediated mild magnetic hyperthermia can activate the host immune systems and efficiently cooperate with PD-L1 blockade to inhibit the potential metastatic spreading as well as the growth of distant tumors.
- A2A R-induced transcriptional deregulation in astrocytes: An in vitro study. [Journal Article]
- GLIAGlia 2019 Jul 22
- Adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R) are modulators of various physiological processes essential for brain homeostasis and fine synaptic tuning. In certain neurodegenerative conditions, notably Alzheimer'…
Adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R) are modulators of various physiological processes essential for brain homeostasis and fine synaptic tuning. In certain neurodegenerative conditions, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD), A2A Rs are pathologically upregulated in neurons but also in astrocytes. In that context, the use of A2A Rs inhibitors, normalizing impaired receptor function, is seen as a potential therapeutic strategy. However, the impact of A2A R alterations, particularly in astrocytes, is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of A2A R overexpression on transcriptional deregulation in primary astrocytic cultures. By performing whole transcriptome analysis, we found that A2A R overexpression promotes robust transcriptional changes, mostly affecting immune response, angiogenesis, and cell activation-related genes. Importantly, we observed that treatment with SCH58261, a selective A2A R antagonist, restored the expression levels of several inflammatory and astrocytic activation-related genes, such as Interleukin-1beta and vimentin. This supports the notion that A2A R blockade could restore some astrocytic dysfunctions associated with abnormal A2A R expression, further arguing for a potential beneficial impact of receptor antagonists in A2A R-induced transcriptional deregulation, inflammation, and astrogliosis. Overall, our findings provide novel insights into the putative impact of A2A R overexpression on transcriptional deregulation in astrocytes, thereby opening novel avenues for the use of A2A R antagonists as potential therapeutic strategy in neurodegenerative diseases.
- Cerebral Oxygenation in the Sitting Position Is Not Compromised During Spontaneous or Positive-Pressure Ventilation. [Journal Article]
- HJHSS J 2019; 15(2):167-175
- CONCLUSIONS: There were no signs of inadequate brain perfusion during general anesthesia using paralytic agents. Positive-pressure ventilation with moderate hypotension in the sitting position does not endanger patients, in the context of moderate hypercapnia and hemodynamic support using ephedrine or epinephrine.
- DUX4 Suppresses MHC Class I to Promote Cancer Immune Evasion and Resistance to Checkpoint Blockade. [Journal Article]
- DCDev Cell 2019 Jul 17
- Advances in cancer immunotherapies make it critical to identify genes that modulate antigen presentation and tumor-immune interactions. We report that DUX4, an early embryonic transcription factor th…
Advances in cancer immunotherapies make it critical to identify genes that modulate antigen presentation and tumor-immune interactions. We report that DUX4, an early embryonic transcription factor that is normally silenced in somatic tissues, is re-expressed in diverse solid cancers. Both cis-acting inherited genetic variation and somatically acquired mutations in trans-acting repressors contribute to DUX4 re-expression in cancer. Although many DUX4 target genes encode self-antigens, DUX4-expressing cancers were paradoxically characterized by reduced markers of anti-tumor cytolytic activity and lower major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene expression. We demonstrate that DUX4 expression blocks interferon-γ-mediated induction of MHC class I, implicating suppressed antigen presentation in DUX4-mediated immune evasion. Clinical data in metastatic melanoma confirmed that DUX4 expression was associated with significantly reduced progression-free and overall survival in response to anti-CTLA-4. Our results demonstrate that cancers can escape immune surveillance by reactivating a normal developmental pathway and identify a therapeutically relevant mechanism of cell-intrinsic immune evasion.
- CB1 Receptors in the Anterior Piriform Cortex Control Odor Preference Memory. [Journal Article]
- CBCurr Biol 2019 Jul 02
- The retrieval of odor-related memories shapes animal behavior. The anterior piriform cortex (aPC) is the largest part of the olfactory cortex, and it plays important roles in olfactory processing and…
The retrieval of odor-related memories shapes animal behavior. The anterior piriform cortex (aPC) is the largest part of the olfactory cortex, and it plays important roles in olfactory processing and memory. However, it is still unclear whether specific cellular mechanisms in the aPC control olfactory memory, depending on the appetitive or aversive nature of the stimuli involved. Cannabinoid-type 1 (CB1) receptors are present in the aPC (aPC-CB1), but their potential impact on olfactory memory was never explored. Here, we used a combination of behavioral, genetic, anatomical, and electrophysiological approaches to characterize the functions of aPC-CB1 receptors in the regulation of appetitive and aversive olfactory memory. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of aPC-CB1 receptors specifically impaired the retrieval of conditioned odor preference (COP). Interestingly, expression of conditioned odor aversion (COA) was unaffected by local CB1 receptor blockade, indicating that the role of aPC endocannabinoid signaling is selective for retrieval of appetitive memory. Anatomical investigations revealed that CB1 receptors are highly expressed on aPC GABAergic interneurons, and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that their pharmacological activation reduces miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) onto aPC semilunar (SL), but not pyramidal principal neurons. COP retrieval, but not COA, was associated with a specific CB1-receptor-dependent decrease of mIPSCs in SL cells. Altogether, these data indicate that aPC-CB1 receptor-dependent mechanisms physiologically control the retrieval of olfactory memory, depending on odor valence and engaging modulation of local inhibitory transmission.
New Search Next
- Ischemic Stroke Associated With Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Inhibitor Therapy for Migraine: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Jul 18; :104286
- Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is involved in nociception and neurogenic inflammation in migraine, but also serves as a potent vasodilator acting on intracranial arteries. This latter effect …
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is involved in nociception and neurogenic inflammation in migraine, but also serves as a potent vasodilator acting on intracranial arteries. This latter effect raises concern about the possibility of drugs inhibiting CGRP precipitating cerebral ischemia. We describe a 41-year-old woman with migraine without aura who developed a right thalamic infarction following a first dose of erenumab, a CGRP-receptor blocker. Stroke onset occurred during a typical migraine. Imaging demonsrated right posterior cerebral artery near-occlusion initially with normalization of the vessel at follow-up imaging 2 months later, suggesting vasospasm as a possible mechanism. Extensive evaluation revealed no other specific cause of stroke or vascular risk factors aside from long-term use of oral contraceptive pills. CGRP inhibitors might be associated with ischemic stroke due to blockade of normal cerebral vasodilatory regulatory function.