- Visceral pain from colon and rectum: the mechanotransduction and biomechanics. [Review]J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2019JN
- Visceral pain is the cardinal symptom of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the leading cause of patients' visit to gastroenterologists. IBS-related visceral pain usually arises from the distal colon and rectum (colorectum), an intraluminal environment that differs greatly from environment outside the body in chemical, biological, thermal, an…
Visceral pain is the cardinal symptom of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the leading cause of patients' visit to gastroenterologists. IBS-related visceral pain usually arises from the distal colon and rectum (colorectum), an intraluminal environment that differs greatly from environment outside the body in chemical, biological, thermal, and mechanical conditions. Accordingly, visceral pain is different from cutaneous pain in several key psychophysical characteristics, which likely underlies the unsatisfactory management of visceral pain by drugs developed for other types of pain. Colorectal visceral pain is usually elicited from mechanical distension/stretch, rather than from heating, cutting, pinching, or piercing that usually evoke pain from the skin. Thus, mechanotransduction, i.e., the encoding of colorectal mechanical stimuli by sensory afferents, is crucial to the underlying mechanisms of GI-related visceral pain. This review will focus on colorectal mechanotransduction, the process of converting colorectal mechanical stimuli into trains of action potentials by the sensory afferents to inform the central nervous system (CNS). We will summarize neurophysiological studies on afferent encoding of colorectal mechanical stimuli, highlight recent advances in our understanding of colorectal biomechanics that plays critical roles in mechanotransduction, and review studies on mechano-sensitive ion channels in colorectal afferents. This review calls for focused attention on targeting colorectal mechanotransduction as a new strategy for managing visceral pain, which can also have an added benefit of limited CNS side effects, because mechanotransduction arises from peripheral organs.
- The "Multi layer" Theory of Denonvilliers' Fascia: Anatomical Dissection to Improve Neurovascular Bundle Preservation on Performing Rectal Mobilization (A Cadaveric Study). [Journal Article]Colorectal Dis 2019CD
- CONCLUSIONS: Safe anterior rectal mobilization should be initiated by incising the peritoneum just few millimeters posterior to its reflection. However, this approach may be difficult in the narrow pelvis. The lateral rectal ligaments and Waldeyer's fascia should be dissected from their attachments to the proper fascia of the rectum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- A 100-million-year old predator: a fossil neuropteran larva with unusually elongated mouthparts. [Journal Article]Zoological Lett 2019; 5:29ZL
- CONCLUSIONS: We provide a comparison that includes quantitative aspects of different types of neuropteran larvae to emphasise the exceptionality of the new larva, and discuss its possible relationships to known lineages of Neuroptera; possible interpretations are closer relationships to Dilaridae or Osmylidae. In any case, several of the observed characters must have evolved convergently. With this new find, we expand the known morphological diversity of neuropterans in the Cretaceous fauna.
- Hepatitis B virus infection: Epidemiology and seroprevalence rate amongst Negrito tribe in Malaysia. [Journal Article]Med J Malaysia 2019; 74(4):320-325MJ
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBV infection rate amongst the Negrito tribe is almost three-fold compared to the national rates. The reason for this finding remains unclear. Tattooing, body piercing and vertical transmission could be the main possible routes of transmission of HBV among the Negrito population in Malaysia.
- Pediatric earlobe keloids: Outcomes and patterns of recurrence. [Journal Article]J Pediatr Surg 2019JP
- CONCLUSIONS: This represents the largest series of earlobe keloids treatment in children. Our data suggest that recurrence rates are unaffected by the age at excision and race of the patient. Moreover, adjuncts to excisional therapy such as steroid injection, compression therapy and radiation also did not appear to influence recurrence. Given the pattern of recurrences studies with longer term follow-up are needed to assess the efficacy of treatment strategies.
- The lumbar artery perforator flap: clinical review and guidance on image reporting. [Review]Clin Radiol 2019; 74(10):756-762CR
- The lumbar artery perforator (LAP) flap is a relatively new procedure that can be utilized to manage lumbosacral defects in addition to reconstructing distal body parts as well, such as breast reconstruction. This fasciocutaneous flap is designed based on the LAPs small arteries that emerge from the lumbar arteries then move superficially piercing overlying tissues to perforate the lumbar fascia …
The lumbar artery perforator (LAP) flap is a relatively new procedure that can be utilized to manage lumbosacral defects in addition to reconstructing distal body parts as well, such as breast reconstruction. This fasciocutaneous flap is designed based on the LAPs small arteries that emerge from the lumbar arteries then move superficially piercing overlying tissues to perforate the lumbar fascia and supply the skin and subcutaneous tissue; However, anatomical and clinical studies regarding the LAP flap and its perforators are sparse in the literature, and the results are even contradicting. This article will discuss the LAP flap, the anatomy of its perforators, and the clinical aspects about its usage. In addition, we explore its preoperative imaging evaluation, and deliver a guide on image reporting and radiological data that will benefit the surgeon most during the procedure.
- Risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups among spouses in 2006 and 2014: a cross-sectional study in Beijing. [Journal Article]Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019; :1-10HV
- CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of HBV infection was lower in 2014 than in 2006 according to HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity. Unvaccinated individuals faced much more risk of HBV infection than those of vaccinated.
- Factors influencing the participation of adolescents and young adults with a congenital heart disease in a transition education program: A prospective multicentre controlled study. [Journal Article]Patient Educ Couns 2019PE
- CONCLUSIONS: Many risk factors influencing the participation of adolescents and young adults with CHD in transition education programs are controllable.Further randomized studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of transition education program on quality of life, successful transfer to adult centre and, ultimately, prognosis.
- No increased risk of transfusion-transmissible infections after tattooing, body piercing, or acupuncture among blood donors in the Netherlands. [Journal Article]Transfusion 2019; 59(8):2575-2583T
- CONCLUSIONS: Recent tattoos, body piercings, or acupuncture were not associated with an increased risk for TTIs in Dutch donors. Given the lower return rates of donors following a temporary NRE-based deferral, we advocate ending blood donor deferral policies for acupuncture, tattooing, and body piercings, but not needle-stick injuries, in countries where these practices can be considered safe.
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- Fashion for a reason: Oral jewellery to aid forensic odontology. [Journal Article]J Forensic Leg Med 2019; 66:38-43JF
- Jewellery along with other personal effects have been used for human identification and acknowledged in the INTERPOL (The International Criminal Police Organization) DVI (disaster victim identification) forms. It is hypothesised that modified oral jewellery has scope as a unique personal effect that can be used in combination with other identifiers. The main aim of this study was to investigate t…
Jewellery along with other personal effects have been used for human identification and acknowledged in the INTERPOL (The International Criminal Police Organization) DVI (disaster victim identification) forms. It is hypothesised that modified oral jewellery has scope as a unique personal effect that can be used in combination with other identifiers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the opinions on the use of modified tooth/oral jewellery items among 90 subjects. The secondary aim was to create and suggest an elaborated oral charting system to document oral jewellery and tooth modifications and respective abbreviations. A number of 30 dental students, 30 dentists and 30 designers/tattoo & piercing artists (groups G1, G2 and G3) responded to online closed-ended surveys (versions V1, V2 and V3). As results, G1 considered jewellery 'fashion/contemporary' (77%), unique and accepted the idea of wearing a customised oral jewellery (equally 47%). G2 considered oral jewellery as 'disgusting/vile fashion' (46.66%), unique (60%) and person' (60%). 53% accepted the idea of presenting oral jewellery to their patients. G3 associated it to 'a sign of rebellion' (53.3%), unique (40%) and accepted the idea of making customised oral jewellery (50%)Preferable designs were tooth jewel (G1), implant with Hallmark (G2) and fixed tooth ring (G3). As conclusions, oral jewellery and piercings are highly acceptable by the dental students but the uniqueness of oral jewellery was more recognized by the dentists. Modified oral jewellery has been fairly accepted among all but the preferable type of design varied. A recording of those by the dentist could potentially aid in forensic dental identifications. Therefore, an elaborated oral charting system to document oral jewellery and tooth modifications and respective abbreviations were also suggested to grant a useful reason to this fashion.