- Medical treatment for botulism. [Meta-Analysis]Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 4:CD008123CD
- CONCLUSIONS: We found low- and moderate-certainty evidence supporting the use of BIG-IV in infant intestinal botulism. A single RCT demonstrated that BIG-IV probably decreases the duration of hospitalization; may decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation; and probably decreases the duration of tube or parenteral feeding. Adverse events were probably no more frequent with immune globulin than with placebo. Our search did not reveal any evidence examining the use of other medical treatments including serum trivalent botulism antitoxin.
- Antimicrobial Susceptibility of 260 Clostridium botulinum Type A, B, Ba, and Bf Strains and a Neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii Type F Strain Isolated from California Infant Botulism Patients. [Case Reports]Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018; 62(12)AA
- Infant botulism is an infectious intestinal toxemia that results from colonization of the infant large bowel by Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, by neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii or Clostridium butyricum), with subsequent intraintestinal production and absorption of botulinum neurotoxin that then produces flaccid paralysis. The disease is often initially misdiagnosed as suspected sepsis or m…
Infant botulism is an infectious intestinal toxemia that results from colonization of the infant large bowel by Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, by neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii or Clostridium butyricum), with subsequent intraintestinal production and absorption of botulinum neurotoxin that then produces flaccid paralysis. The disease is often initially misdiagnosed as suspected sepsis or meningitis, diagnoses that require prompt empirical antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotics may also be needed to treat infectious complications of infant botulism, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Clinical evidence suggests (see case report below) that broad-spectrum antibiotics that are eliminated by biliary excretion may cause progression of the patient's paralysis by lysing C. botulinum vegetative cells in the large bowel lumen, thereby increasing the amount of botulinum neurotoxin available for absorption. The purpose of this antimicrobial susceptibility study was to identify an antimicrobial agent with little or no activity against C. botulinum that could be used to treat infant botulism patients initially diagnosed with suspected sepsis or meningitis, or who acquired secondary infections, without lysing C. botulinum Testing of 12 antimicrobial agents indicated that almost all California infant botulism patient isolates are susceptible to most clinically utilized antibiotics and are also susceptible to newer antibiotics not previously tested against large numbers of C. botulinum patient isolates. No antibiotic with little or no activity against C. botulinum was identified. These findings reinforce the importance of promptly treating infant botulism patients with human botulism immune globulin (BIG-IV [BabyBIG]).
- Question 1: In infant botulism, is equine-derived botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) an effective alternative therapy to human-derived botulinum immune globulin (BIG)? [Case Reports]Arch Dis Child 2018; 103(9):907-909AD
- Safety and immunogenicity of investigational recombinant botulinum vaccine, rBV A/B, in volunteers with pre-existing botulinum toxoid immunity. [Journal Article]Vaccine 2018; 36(15):2041-2048V
- CONCLUSIONS: A single 0.5 mL dose of rBV A/B was safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic in participants previously immunized with pentavalent botulinum toxoid. The tolerability and immunogenicity characteristics of rBV A/B vaccination of individuals with existing BoNT immunity support its potential future use to provide occupational protection to botulism laboratory workers. Almost all study participants donated hyperimmune plasma for production of BIG-IV. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01701999.
- Efficacy of Human Botulism Immune Globulin for the Treatment of Infant Botulism: The First 12 Years Post Licensure. [Journal Article]J Pediatr 2018; 193:172-177JPed
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of BIG-IV since its licensure in 2003 treated approximately 93% of US patients with laboratory-confirmed infant botulism, and prevented >65 years in hospital stay and >$85 million in hospital charges from occurring. The greatest LOS reduction was achieved when BIG-IV was administered soon after hospital admission. Effective and appropriate use of BIG-IV in the US has continued in the postlicensure period.
- More Clinical Mimics of Infant Botulism. [Journal Article]J Pediatr 2018; 193:178-182JPed
- CONCLUSIONS: Over the 23 years 1992-2015, patients presenting with illnesses so clinically similar to infant botulism that they were treated with BIG-IV had actual diagnoses that were distributed into 5 main categories. These categories and their individual components constitute a working bedside differential diagnosis of infant botulism.
- Infant botulism in Denmark from 1995 to 2015. [Journal Article]Dan Med J 2017; 64(9)DM
- CONCLUSIONS: Infant botulism is probably underdiagnosed. Increased awareness is crucial to be able to recognise the condition. The time delay from hospital admission to administration of BIG-IV is challenging. Studies have shown that BIG-IV reduces both mean duration of intensive care and mean length of hospital stay; however, this was not confirmed in our work due to the limited number of patients.
- Effective treatment of infant botulism on day 13 after symptom onset with human botulism antitoxin. [Case Reports]J Paediatr Child Health 2017; 53(4):416-418JP
- One-Month-Old Infant With Hypotonia and Cardiorespiratory Arrest. [Case Reports]Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2017; 56(4):397-398CPed
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- Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism. [Case Reports]Front Pediatr 2015; 3:108FP
- We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionall…
We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic-ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots.