- Twitter mining using semi-supervised classification for relevance filtering in syndromic surveillance. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0210689
- We investigate the use of Twitter data to deliver signals for syndromic surveillance in order to assess its ability to augment existing syndromic surveillance efforts and give a better understanding …
We investigate the use of Twitter data to deliver signals for syndromic surveillance in order to assess its ability to augment existing syndromic surveillance efforts and give a better understanding of symptomatic people who do not seek healthcare advice directly. We focus on a specific syndrome-asthma/difficulty breathing. We outline data collection using the Twitter streaming API as well as analysis and pre-processing of the collected data. Even with keyword-based data collection, many of the tweets collected are not be relevant because they represent chatter, or talk of awareness instead of an individual suffering a particular condition. In light of this, we set out to identify relevant tweets to collect a strong and reliable signal. For this, we investigate text classification techniques, and in particular we focus on semi-supervised classification techniques since they enable us to use more of the Twitter data collected while only doing very minimal labelling. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised approach to symptomatic tweet classification and relevance filtering. We also propose alternative techniques to popular deep learning approaches. Additionally, we highlight the use of emojis and other special features capturing the tweet's tone to improve the classification performance. Our results show that negative emojis and those that denote laughter provide the best classification performance in conjunction with a simple word-level n-gram approach. We obtain good performance in classifying symptomatic tweets with both supervised and semi-supervised algorithms and found that the proposed semi-supervised algorithms preserve more of the relevant tweets and may be advantageous in the context of a weak signal. Finally, we found some correlation (r = 0.414, p = 0.0004) between the Twitter signal generated with the semi-supervised system and data from consultations for related health conditions.
- Endothelin A and B Receptors: Potential Targets for Microcirculatory-Mitochondrial Therapy in Experimental Sepsis. [Journal Article]
- SShock 2019 Jul 16
- The hypoxia-sensitive endothelin (ET) system plays an important role in circulatory regulation through vasoconstrictor ETA and ETB2 and vasodilator ETB1 receptors. Sepsis progression is associated wi…
The hypoxia-sensitive endothelin (ET) system plays an important role in circulatory regulation through vasoconstrictor ETA and ETB2 and vasodilator ETB1 receptors. Sepsis progression is associated with microcirculatory and mitochondrial disturbances along with tissue hypoxia. Our aim was to investigate the consequences of treatments with the ETA receptor (ETA-R) antagonist, ETB1 receptor (ETB1-R) agonist, or their combination on oxygen dynamics, mesenteric microcirculation and mitochondrial respiration in a rodent model of sepsis. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to fecal peritonitis (0.6 g kg ip) or a sham operation. Septic animals were treated with saline or the ETA-R antagonist ETR-p1/fl peptide (100 nmol kg iv), the ETB1-R agonist IRL-1620 (0.55 nmol kg iv), or a combination therapy 22 h after induction. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring and blood gas analysis were performed during a 90-min observation, plasma ET-1 levels were determined, and intestinal capillary perfusion (CPR) was detected by intravital videomicroscopy. Mitochondrial Complex I (CI)- and CII-linked oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry in liver biopsies. Septic animals were hypotensive with elevated plasma ET-1. The ileal CPR, oxygen extraction (ExO2), and CI-CII-linked OXPHOS capacities decreased. ETR-p1/fl treatment increased ExO2 (by >45%), CPR, and CII-linked OXPHOS capacity. The administration of IRL-1620 countervailed the sepsis-induced hypotension (by >30%), normalized ExO2, and increased CPR. The combined ETA-R antagonist-ETB1-R agonist therapy reduced the plasma ET-1 level, significantly improved the intestinal microcirculation (by >41%), and reversed mitochondrial dysfunction. The additive effects of a combined ETA-R-ETB1-R-targeted therapy may offer a tool for a novel microcirculatory and mitochondrial resuscitation strategy in experimental sepsis.
- Computational analysis of airflow dynamics for predicting collapsible sites in the upper airways: Machine learning approach. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jul 18
- Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD), this study provides a quantitative standard for accurate diagnosis and effective surg…
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD), this study provides a quantitative standard for accurate diagnosis and effective surgery based on the investigation of the relationship between airway geometry and aerodynamic characteristics. Based on computed tomography data from patients having normal geometry, four major geometric parameters were selected, and a total of 160 idealized cases were modeled and simulated. We created a predictive model using Gaussian process regression (GPR) through a dataset obtained through numerical method. The results demonstrated that the mean accuracy of the overall GPR model was approximately 72% with respect to the CFD results for the realistic upper airway model. A support vector machine model was also used to identify the degree of OSA symptoms in patients as normal-mild and moderate/severe. We achieved an accuracy of 82.5% with the training dataset and an accuracy of 80% with the test dataset.
- Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in a sex-specific manner. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Jul 18
- Insufficient nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction and increased NO has the potential to enhance cerebral blood flow (CBF). Dietary supplementation with…
Insufficient nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction and increased NO has the potential to enhance cerebral blood flow (CBF). Dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate, a precursor of NO, could improve cerebrovascular function but this has not been investigated. In seventeen individuals, we examined the effects of a 7-day supplementation of dietary nitrate (0.1mmol/kg/day) on cerebrovascular function using a randomised, single-blinded placebo-controlled crossover design. We hypothesized that 7-day dietary nitrate supplementation increases CBF response to CO2 (cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity) and cerebral autoregulation (CA). We assessed middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and blood pressure (BP) at rest and during CO2 breathing. Transfer function analysis was performed on resting beat-to-beat MCAv and BP to determine CA, from which phase, gain and coherence of the BP-MCAv data were derived. Dietary nitrate elevated plasma nitrate concentration by ˜420% (P<0.001) and lowered gain (d = 1.2, P = 0.025) and phase of the BP-MCAv signal compared to placebo treatment (d=0.7, P=0.043), while coherence was unaffected (P=0.122). Dietary nitrate increased the MCAv-CO2 slope in a sex-specific manner (interaction: P=0.016). Dietary nitrate increased the MCAv-CO2 slope in males (d=1.0, P=0.014 vs. placebo), but had no effect in females (P=0.919). Our data demonstrate that dietary nitrate greatly increased cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in healthy individuals, while its effect on CA remains unclear. The selective increase in the MCAv-CO2 slope observed in males indicates a clear sexual dimorphic role of NO in cerebrovascular function.
- Misophonia - a review of research results and theoretical concepts. [Review]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2019 Apr 30; 53(2):447-458
- Misophonia is a new and relatively under-explored condition characterized by experiencing strong emotions (mainly anger and disgust) and a physical response (such as muscle constriction, increased he…
Misophonia is a new and relatively under-explored condition characterized by experiencing strong emotions (mainly anger and disgust) and a physical response (such as muscle constriction, increased heart rate) when exposed to specific sounds. Among the most frequent aversive triggers are the sounds of eating, breathing, or typing. The experience of misophonia is associated with suffering and a significant decrease in quality of life. The phenomenon was first described in 2002. Since then, numerous case studies and data from psychophysiological and neurological and survey research on this phenomenon have been published. These data indicate that misophonia is a consistent phenomenon and preliminary identification is possible. The most recent results show that misophonia occurs independent of other disorders. There are still, however, many questions regarding the definition and diagnostic criteria to be answered. The most important diagnostic issues that are faced during clinical work with people with misophonia are described in this article. Furthermore, the main theoretical concepts and research on misophonia are reviewed and analyzed.
- [Central sleep apnea in patients with chronic heart failure]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2019; 119(4. Vyp. 2):99-104
- Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is a form of sleep-disordered breathing seen in approximately half of patients with chronic heart failure and low left ventricular ejection fraction. The authors descr…
Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is a form of sleep-disordered breathing seen in approximately half of patients with chronic heart failure and low left ventricular ejection fraction. The authors describe clinical features of CSR, mortality rate, treatment variants. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bi-level ventilation, adaptive servoventilation (ASV) in patients with CSR and chronic heart failure are discussed. Diuretic acetazolamide is one more therapeutic option for CSR. It improves central sleep apnea and related daytime symptoms in patients with heart failure.
- [Sleep disorders and stroke: data of the esse-rf study]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2019; 119(4. Vyp. 2):73-80
- CONCLUSIONS: Of 20 357 respondents, 422 (2%) confirmed the history of stroke. Both short and long sleep duration were not associated with stroke. Complaints of sleep disorders (snoring, sleep apnea, difficulty falling and maintaining sleep, as well as their combinations) were more frequently correlated with stroke. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, office blood pressure, the regression analysis showed that odds ratio was not significant for all complaints, except the combination of sleep apnea with frequent daytime sleepiness (1.7 (95% CI 1.04-2.8) (p=0.034). Therefore, symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing and insomnia are more common in respondents with the history of stroke. The combination of sleep apnea and frequent sleepiness complaints may indicate more severe sleep disorders in post-stroke patients.
- Effectiveness of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Severe Asthma - a Retrospective Data Analysis. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Asthma 2019 Jul 18; :1-12
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence for the first time on a large sample of patients with severe asthma that a multidisciplinary PR programme is effective in terms of exercise capacity and symptoms. In addition exercise capacity improved also in presence of bronchiectasis and/or OSAS.
- Deletion of the glutaredoxin-2 gene protects mice from diet-induced weight gain which correlates with increased mitochondrial respiration and proton leaks in skeletal muscle. [Journal Article]
- ARAntioxid Redox Signal 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Deleting the Grx2 gene protects mice from diet-induced weight gain. This effect was related to an increase in muscle fuel combustion, mitochondrial respiration, proton leaks, and ROS handling.
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- Nitrate addition stimulates microbial decomposition of organic matter in salt marsh sediments. [Journal Article]
- GCGlob Chang Biol 2019 Jul 17
- Salt marshes sequester carbon at rates more than an order of magnitude greater than their terrestrial counterparts, helping to mitigate climate change. As nitrogen loading to coastal waters continues…
Salt marshes sequester carbon at rates more than an order of magnitude greater than their terrestrial counterparts, helping to mitigate climate change. As nitrogen loading to coastal waters continues, primarily in the form of nitrate, it is unclear what effect it will have on carbon storage capacity of these highly productive systems. This uncertainty is largely driven by the dual role nitrate can play in biological processes, where it can serve as a nutrient-stimulating primary production or a thermodynamically favorable electron acceptor fueling heterotrophic metabolism. Here, we used a controlled flow-through reactor experiment to test the role of nitrate as an electron acceptor, and its effect on organic matter decomposition and the associated microbial community in salt marsh sediments. Organic matter decomposition significantly increased in response to nitrate, even at sediment depths typically considered resistant to decomposition. The use of isotope tracers suggests that this pattern was largely driven by stimulated denitrification. Nitrate addition also significantly altered the microbial community and decreased alpha diversity, selecting for taxa belonging to groups known to reduce nitrate and oxidize more complex forms of organic matter. Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy further supported these results, suggesting that nitrate facilitated decomposition of complex organic matter compounds into more bioavailable forms. Taken together, these results suggest the existence of organic matter pools that only become accessible with nitrate and would otherwise remain stabilized in the sediment. The existence of such pools could have important implications for carbon storage, since greater decomposition rates as N loading increases may result in less overall burial of organic-rich sediment. Given the extent of nitrogen loading along our coastlines, it is imperative that we better understand the resilience of salt marsh systems to nutrient enrichment, especially if we hope to rely on salt marshes, and other blue carbon systems, for long-term carbon storage.