- Maternal childhood and lifetime traumatic life events and infant bronchiolitis. [Journal Article]
- PPPaediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2019 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Infants born to women reporting multiple types of childhood trauma were at higher risk for bronchiolitis. Further research is needed to explore intergenerational effects of traumatic experiences.
- A case of pseudomembranous tracheitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in an immunocompetent patient. [Case Reports]
- ATAnn Transl Med 2019; 7(9):205
- Pseudomembranous tracheitis (PMT) is a rare condition characterized by pseudomembrane formation in the tracheobronchial tree that may be associated with infectious and noninfectious processes. Howeve…
Pseudomembranous tracheitis (PMT) is a rare condition characterized by pseudomembrane formation in the tracheobronchial tree that may be associated with infectious and noninfectious processes. However, PMT attributed to Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae), a common atypical respiratory infectious pathogen, has not been reported till date. Here, we report about a 29-year-old woman with complaints of severe persistent cough and radiographic deterioration despite antibiotics administration for pneumonia at an outside facility. She was finally diagnosed as having PMT with bilateral diffuse bronchiolitis caused by M. pneumoniae infection. The diagnosis was made based on a bronchoscopic finding of a pseudomembrane that partially covered the membranous portion of the upper and middle trachea, a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with bronchial aspirate, and a positive serological test for M. pneumoniae without detection of any other causative pathogen through an extensive workup. Her symptoms and radiographic findings improved in response to moxifloxacin and corticosteroid treatment. This case is a rare presentation of M. pneumoniae infection complicating PMT in a young adult without any known risk factors.
- Viral Bacterial Interactions in Children: Impact on Clinical Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- PIPediatr Infect Dis J 2019; 38(6S Suppl 1):S14-S19
- Respiratory viral infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children < 5 years of age worldwide. Among all respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the wo…
Respiratory viral infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children < 5 years of age worldwide. Among all respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the world's leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children. There are known populations at risk for severe disease but the majority of children who require hospitalization for RSV infection are previously healthy. Viral and host factors have been associated with the pathogenesis of RSV disease; however, the mechanisms that explain the wide variability in the clinical presentation are not completely understood. Recent studies suggest that the complex interaction between the respiratory microbiome, the host's immune response and the virus may have an impact on the pathogenesis and severity of RSV infection. In this review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the epidemiologic link, the mechanisms of viral-bacterial interactions, and the associations between the upper respiratory tract microbiome and RSV disease severity.
- Pembrolizumab-associated bronchiolitis in an elderly lung cancer patient required the treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid, erythromycin and bronchodilators. [Case Reports]
- RMRespir Med Case Rep 2019; 28:100866
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been used to treat lung cancer. Several types of ICI-related interstitial lung diseases have been reported, including organizing pneumonia, non-specific inter…
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been used to treat lung cancer. Several types of ICI-related interstitial lung diseases have been reported, including organizing pneumonia, non-specific interstitial pneumonia, and diffuse alveolar damage. However, pembrolizumab-associated bronchiolitis requiring treatment for persistent cough has not yet been reported. Here, we describe a patient who developed dry cough while being treated with pembrolizumab for lung adenocarcinoma. Radiography and lung biopsy findings indicated bronchiolitis. His cough improved after the discontinuation of pembrolizumab and treatment with erythromycin, an inhaled corticosteroid, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and a long-acting β2 agonist.
- Impact of Rhinovirus Infections in Children. [Review]
- VViruses 2019 Jun 05; 11(6)
- Rhinovirus (RV) is an RNA virus that causes more than 50% of upper respiratory tract infections in humans worldwide. Together with Respiratory Syncytial Virus, RV is one of the leading causes of vira…
Rhinovirus (RV) is an RNA virus that causes more than 50% of upper respiratory tract infections in humans worldwide. Together with Respiratory Syncytial Virus, RV is one of the leading causes of viral bronchiolitis in infants and the most common virus associated with wheezing in children aged between one and two years. Because of its tremendous genetic diversity (>150 serotypes), the recurrence of RV infections each year is quite typical. Furthermore, because of its broad clinical spectrum, the clinical variability as well as the pathogenesis of RV infection are nowadays the subjects of an in-depth examination and have been the subject of several studies in the literature. In fact, the virus is responsible for direct cell cytotoxicity in only a small way, and it is now clearer than ever that it may act indirectly by triggering the release of active mediators by structural and inflammatory airway cells, causing the onset and/or the acute exacerbation of asthmatic events in predisposed children. In the present review, we aim to summarize the RV infection's epidemiology, pathogenetic hypotheses, and available treatment options as well as its correlation with respiratory morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population.
- Virologic study of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children admitted to the paediatric department of Blida University Hospital, Algeria. [Journal Article]
- NMNew Microbes New Infect 2019; 30:100536
- Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis are major causes of mortality and morbidity in children under 5 years of age. The main microbial agents responsibl…
Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis are major causes of mortality and morbidity in children under 5 years of age. The main microbial agents responsible for ALRTI are either bacterial agents (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Mycoplasma pneumoniae) or viruses (respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, also known as human orthopneumovirus), Myxovirus influenzae, Myxovirus parainfluenzae, adenovirus) . More recently, other viruses (rhinovirus, metapneumovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus) have been implicated in ALRTI; their identification has been facilitated by new molecular biology techniques such as real-time PCR. To our knowledge, these emerging viruses have never been the subject of epidemiologic studies in our country.
- Point-of-care lung ultrasound in children with non-cardiac respiratory distress or tachypnea. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Emerg Med 2019 Jun 03
- CONCLUSIONS: PoCLUS may constitute a beneficial and rational approach in the evaluation of children with increased work of breathing in the ED, and can also expedite the diagnostic process.
- The role of extracorporeal life support in the management with severe idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension undergoing lung transplantation: are those patients referred too late? [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thorac Dis 2019; 11(Suppl 6):S929-S937
- CONCLUSIONS: ECLS is an essential tool in the armamentarium of any lung transplant program treating iPAH with a potential of bridge patients to transplantation and to overcome graft dysfunction after LTx. Despite utilization of ECLS in the management of iPAH, the outcomes in terms of primary graft failure and survival remain poor compared to patients with other diagnoses.
- Pharmacotherapy in bronchiolitis at discharge from emergency departments within the Pediatric Emergency Research Networks: a retrospective analysis. [Journal Article]
- LCLancet Child Adolesc Health 2019 Jun 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Use of ineffective medications in infants with bronchiolitis at discharge from emergency departments is common, with large differences in prescribing practices between countries and emergency departments. Enhanced knowledge translation and deprescribing efforts are needed to optimise and unify the management of bronchiolitis.
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- Prescribing for bronchiolitis: think globally, choose wisely. [Journal Article]
- LCLancet Child Adolesc Health 2019 Jun 07