- Pupipara (Diptera, Hippoboscidae) in wild birds attended at a rehabilitation center in southern Brazil. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 May 30
- The hippoboscids are cosmopolitan permanent obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of birds, domestic and wild mammals and, occasionally, humans. Some species may act as vectors or hosts of etiological…
The hippoboscids are cosmopolitan permanent obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of birds, domestic and wild mammals and, occasionally, humans. Some species may act as vectors or hosts of etiological pathogenic agents. The aims of this study were to report on the first cases of Hippoboscidae in Crax blumenbachii and Parabuteo unicinctus; to provide new reports from Brazil on Tyto furcata and Asio stygius parasitized by Icosta americana; to report on individuals of Bubo virginianus, Falco sparverius and Accipiter striatus parasitized by genera Ornithoctona; and to provide new reports on parasitism of O. erythrocephala in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The birds of prey and C. blumenbachii were attended at a rehabilitation center in Porto Alegre and at a veterinary hospital in Cruz Alta. These new records demonstrate the huge gap that exists regarding studies on avian ectoparasites and highlight potential vectors of hemoparasites for the bird species studied.
- Coccidian parasites from birds at rehabilitation centers in Portugal, with notes on Avispora bubonis in Old World. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 May 23
- Portugal has some rehabilitation centers for wild animals, which are responsible for the rehabilitation and reintroduction of birds, among other animals, into the wild. Coccidian parasites of these w…
Portugal has some rehabilitation centers for wild animals, which are responsible for the rehabilitation and reintroduction of birds, among other animals, into the wild. Coccidian parasites of these wild birds in rehabilitation centers are especially important because these centers can introduce coccidian species into new environments through the reintroduction of their respective hosts. In this context, the current study aimed to identify intestinal coccidia from wild birds at two rehabilitation centers for wild animals located in two municipalities of Portugal. Eighty-nine wild birds of 9 orders and 11 families were sampled, of which 22 (25%) were positive for Coccidia. Avispora spp. were found in raptors. Sporocysts of Sarcocystinae subfamily were recovered from owls. An Isospora sp. was found in Turdus merula Linnaeus, 1758, and an Eimeria sp. was found in Fulica atra Linnaeus, 1758. Among the coccidian species, Avispora bubonis (Cawthorn, Stockdale, 1981) can be highlighted. The finding of this species indicates that transmission of coccidians from the New World to the Old World may be occurring, potentially through dispersion by Bubo scandiacus (Linnaeus, 1758) through Arctic regions or by means of anthropic activities, and/or through other unknown mechanisms.
- Owl Pellets, a Useful Method to Study Epigean Tenebrionid Beetles in Arid Lands. [Journal Article]
- NENeotrop Entomol 2019 May 27
- Owl pellets, regurgitates formed by the undigested parts of owls' prey, have been used since the 1960s to estimate relative species abundances and community diversity of small mammals in the field. A…
Owl pellets, regurgitates formed by the undigested parts of owls' prey, have been used since the 1960s to estimate relative species abundances and community diversity of small mammals in the field. Although insects are important food sources for raptors, the usefulness of owl pellets as a collecting method for entomological studies remains practically unexplored. Many terrestrial arthropods have fragile bodies that degrade during the raptor's digestive process; however, darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) resist this process. These organisms are abundant and rich in species, and play significant roles in food and nutrient soil cycles in arid regions. Moreover, darkling beetles are well known and represent up to 52% of prey abundances in Bubo magellanicus (Lesson), one of the most common owls in arid Patagonia. The aim of this work is to evaluate the suitability of B. magellanicus pellets as a research tool for studies of tenebrionid beetle biodiversity assessments in arid Patagonia. Thus, we compare tenebrionid relative species abundances, species richness, and their species assemblage estimated from the diet of B. magellanicus with those identified simultaneously by conventional trapping (pitfall trapping and hand collecting) using multivariate techniques and the Fisher's exact test. Mitragenius araneiformis Curtis, Patagonogenius quadricollis Fairmaire, and Emmallodera crenaticostata crenaticostata Blanchard were the most abundant tenebrionid species. Relative abundances of almost all species, the estimation of species richness, and tenebrionid assemblage from both collecting methodologies were similar. Therefore, we propose the owl pellet analysis as a useful sampling tool for rapid estimations of the tenebrionid assemblage structure in arid Patagonia.
- Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Herpesviruses Detected in Wild Owls in Slovenia. [Journal Article]
- ADAvian Dis 2018; 62(4):397-403
- Herpesvirus (HV) was detected using PCR in the organs of eight of 55 wild owls (14.5%) from seven species that were found dead in various locations in Slovenia between 1995 and 2015. HV was detected …
Herpesvirus (HV) was detected using PCR in the organs of eight of 55 wild owls (14.5%) from seven species that were found dead in various locations in Slovenia between 1995 and 2015. HV was detected in three species: the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Ural owl (Strix uralensis), and long-eared owl (Asio otus). Phylogenetic analysis of partial DNA polymerase gene nucleotide sequences showed that the detected HVs are similar to the avian and mammal alphaherpesviruses. Two sequences were very similar to known bird HV sequences. One sequence was identical to the columbid herpesvirus 1 (CoHV1) sequence, and the other was very similar to the gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV2) sequence. The phylogenetic tree revealed a lower similarity of the other six analyzed Slovenian sequences with the sequences of alphaherpesviruses of birds and mammals. This is the first study to report the detection of different HVs in owls.
- Case Series: Virulent hemosporidiosis infections in juvenile great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Louisiana and California, USA. [Case Reports]
- VPVet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2018; 12:49-54
- A total of eight juvenile great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were found lethargic and on the ground in spring 2015, 2016, and 2017, including one fledgling from Louisiana, USA and seven nestlings f…
A total of eight juvenile great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were found lethargic and on the ground in spring 2015, 2016, and 2017, including one fledgling from Louisiana, USA and seven nestlings from California, USA. One bird survived to release after rehabilitation; seven birds died or were euthanized due to poor prognosis and were necropsied. Necropsy findings were similar and included general pallor of all tissues, particularly the subcutis and lungs, and enlarged liver and spleen. Histopathology revealed multi-organ necrosis, abundant meronts containing merozoites, and intracytoplasmic pigmented haemosporidian parasites in blood cells in one bird. Leucocytozoon lineages lSTOCC16 and BUVIR06 were identified by polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequencing. The systemic Leucocytozoon infections were likely associated with morbidity and mortality in these owls. A second parasite, Haemoproteus lineage hSTVAR01, was also identified in an owl from Louisiana. This is the first identification of Leucocytozoon lineages that have been associated with mortality in young great horned owls.
- What is your diagnosis? A shoulder mass in a great horned owl. [Journal Article]
- VCVet Clin Pathol 2019 Apr 19
- Owls lack UV-sensitive cone opsin and red oil droplets, but see UV light at night: Retinal transcriptomes and ocular media transmittance. [Journal Article]
- VRVision Res 2019; 158:109-119
- Most diurnal birds have cone-dominated retinae and tetrachromatic colour vision based on ultra-violet/violet-sensitive UV/V cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), S cones express…
Most diurnal birds have cone-dominated retinae and tetrachromatic colour vision based on ultra-violet/violet-sensitive UV/V cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), S cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 2 (SWS2), M cones expressing medium wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2) and L cones expressing long wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS). Double cones (D) express LWS but do not contribute to colour vision. Each cone is equipped with an oil droplet, transparent in UV/V cones, but pigmented by carotenoids: galloxanthin in S, zeaxanthin in M, astaxanthin in L and a mixture in D cones. Owls (Strigiformes) are crepuscular or nocturnal birds with rod-dominated retinae and optical adaptations for high sensitivity. For eight species, the absence of functional SWS1 opsin has recently been documented, functional RH2 opsin was absent in three of these. Here we confirm the absence of SWS1 transcripts for the Long-eared owl (Asio otus) and demonstrate its absence for the Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus), Tawny owl (Strix aluco) and Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus). All four species had transcripts of RH2, albeit with low expression. All four species express all enzymes needed to produce galloxanthin, but lack CYP2J19 expression required to produce astaxanthin from dietary precursors. We also present ocular media transmittance of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and Short-eared owl and predict spectral sensitivities of all photoreceptors of the Tawny owl. We conclude that owls, despite lacking UV/V cones, can detect UV light. This increases the sensitivity of their rod vision allowing them, for instance, to see UV-reflecting feathers as brighter signals at night.
- Widespread anticoagulant poison exposure in predators in a rapidly growing South African city. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 May 20; 666:581-590
- Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used worldwide to control rodent populations. ARs bioaccumulate across trophic levels and threaten non-target wildlife. We investigated the prevalence of AR expos…
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used worldwide to control rodent populations. ARs bioaccumulate across trophic levels and threaten non-target wildlife. We investigated the prevalence of AR exposure in seven predator species in the rapidly developing Greater Cape Town region of South Africa - a mosaic of natural, urban, and agricultural areas within a global biodiversity hotspot. We focused sampling on caracals (Caracal caracal, n = 28) as part of a larger caracal ecology study, but also opportunistically sampled Cape Clawless otters (Aonyx capensis, n = 9), large-spotted genets (Genetta tigrina, n = 4), honey badger (Mellivora capensis, n = 1), water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus, n = 1), small gray mongoose (Galerella pulverulenta, n = 1), and Cape Eagle owl (Bubo capensis, n = 1). We tested livers from all species, and blood from ten caracals, for eight AR compounds to assess prevalence and amount of exposure for each compound. We used generalized linear models to test spatial, demographic, and seasonal risk factors for ten measures of AR exposure in caracals. We detected at least one of the four most toxic AR compounds in six species. Exposure was high for caracals (92%) and all species combined (81%). For caracals, proximity to vineyards was the most important AR exposure risk factor. Vineyards in Cape Town do not use ARs to protect their vines but do host commercial hospitality structures where ARs are used. Vineyards may thus link caracals that forage within vineyards to the rat poisons used in and around their commercial structures. Residue levels were unexpected in large-spotted genets and Cape Clawless otters, suggesting invertebrate vectors. ARs may present a cryptic threat to populations already vulnerable to increasing habitat loss, vehicle collisions, poachers and fire. Targeted mitigation should include a mix of environmentally responsible policies that reduce AR use, particularly in areas near wildlife habitat.
- Prevalence of Sarcocysts in the Muscles of Raptors from a Rehabilitation Center in North Carolina. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Parasitol 2019; 105(1):11-16
- The life cycle of Sarcocystis species is heteroxenous (2-host), with carnivores being the definitive host and herbivores serving as intermediate hosts in predator-prey relationships. Raptors (eagles,…
The life cycle of Sarcocystis species is heteroxenous (2-host), with carnivores being the definitive host and herbivores serving as intermediate hosts in predator-prey relationships. Raptors (eagles, hawks, falcons, and owls) are apex predators and are not consumed routinely by other carnivores, making the occurrence of sarcocysts in their muscles unusual. Recent reports of sarcocysts in eagles and owls with Sarcocystis encephalitis suggests that this condition may be becoming more frequent, and Sarcocystis falcatula has been implicated as the agent of encephalitis in golden (Aquila chrysaetos) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) as well as great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). The present study was done to determine the prevalence of sarcocysts of Sarcocystis species in the muscles of raptors from the southeastern United States. Pectoral and heart muscle from 204 raptor patients from the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina were tested for the presence of Sarcocystis species using histology. Only a few sarcocysts were seen in sections of pectoral muscle from 39 of 204 raptors (19.1%) and heart muscle from 9 that also had sarcocysts in their pectoral muscle. Two structural types of sarcocysts, thin-walled (1 μm; 62%) or thick-walled (>2 μm, 38%), were seen. Statistical analysis of raptor age and gender was done by Fisher's exact test on samples from raptors with 20 or more samples per group. The prevalence of sarcocysts by age (2 yr or more) was significant for red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (P = 0.022) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (P = 0.028). Sarcocyst prevalence in male raptors from these groups evaluated statistically were always less than in females. Prevalence in female red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (42.1%) was significantly greater than in males (6.7%) using Fisher's exact test (P = 0.047). Examination of case histories from the 39 sarcocyst-positive raptors did not reveal an association with sarcocysts in raptor pectoral or heart muscle and in a diagnosis of encephalitis. Additional studies are needed to determine the epidemiology and relationships of Sarcocystis spp. that use raptors as intermediate hosts and the importance of Sarcocystis spp. in the overall wellbeing of raptors in their natural environments.
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- Pattern of sexually transmitted infections: A profile from a rural- and tribal-based sexually transmitted infections clinic of a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Family Med Prim Care 2018 Sep-Oct; 7(5):1042-1046
- CONCLUSIONS: Tribal females need special attention for prevention of STI in tribal community.