- Bladder and urethral dysfunction in multiparous and mature rabbits correlates with abnormal activity of pubococcygeus and bulbospongiosus muscles. [Journal Article]Neurourol Urodyn 2019NU
- CONCLUSIONS: The present findings strongly suggest that multiparity and age affects specific pelvic floor muscle reflex activation during micturition, and may contribute to alterations in bladder and urethral function. This data broadens our understanding of the critical role of the appropriate activity of the individual pelvic floor muscles in micturition.
- Precise Three-Dimensional Morphology of the Male Anterior Anorectum Reconstructed From Large Serial Histologic Sections: A Cadaveric Study. [Journal Article]Dis Colon Rectum 2019; 62(10):1238-1247DC
- CONCLUSIONS: This study involved a small sample size of elderly cadavers.This study clarified the precise spatial relationship between smooth and striated muscles. The detailed anatomic findings will contribute more accurate step-by-step anterior dissection in intersphincteric resection and abdominoperineal resection, especially with the transanal approach, which can magnify the muscle fiber direction and contraction of striated muscle by electrostimulation. MORFOLOGÍA TRIDIMENSIONAL PRECISA DEL ANORRECTO ANTERIOR MASCULINO RECONSTRUIDO A TRAVÉS DE SECCIONES MAYORES HISTOLÓGICAS EN SERIE: UN ESTUDIO CADAVÉRICO: El conocimiento anatómico amplio del anorrecto anterior masculino es importante para evitar lesiones de uretra y perforación de recto en la resección interesfinterica o la resección abdominoperineal para cáncer de recto bajo. Sin embargo, su estructura es difícil de entender porque el anorrecto, los músculos y los órganos urogenitales están aliñados en forma complexa tridimensional.
- Pathobiology of ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles in long-term diabetic male rats and its implication on erectile dysfunction. [Journal Article]Aging Male 2019; :1-12AM
- CONCLUSIONS: Severe neuromuscular circuitry alteration in IC and BS. Study concludes that degenerative changes in IC and BS may play a major role in ED in diabetic condition. Indicating diabetic-induced postsynaptic neuronal degeneration along with impaired motor action of the muscle and severe muscle degeneration affecting ED.
- Effects of mu opioid receptors in paraventricular nucleus on ejaculation through mediating sympathetic nerve system activity. [Journal Article]Neuropharmacology 2019; 158:107709N
- To investigate the roles of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) on ejaculation and its underlying mechanism in the rats, we performed copulation behavioral testing and acute experiments. During the acute experiments, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), bulbospongiosus muscle-electromyogram (BSM-EMG) and pressure of vas deferens (PVD) were all…
To investigate the roles of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) on ejaculation and its underlying mechanism in the rats, we performed copulation behavioral testing and acute experiments. During the acute experiments, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), bulbospongiosus muscle-electromyogram (BSM-EMG) and pressure of vas deferens (PVD) were all recorded. The expression levels and distributions of opioid receptors were also assessed in PVN of male rats. Moreover, adeno-associated virus type 1 (AAV1) was microinjected into PVN to demonstrate whether there are direct projections from PVN to lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells. We found that microinjection of MOR agonist, D-A1a2-NM9-Phe4-Gly(ol)5enkephalin (DAGO), into the PVN prolonged the intromission latency and inhibited ejaculation (P = 0.0241, P = 0.0473, respectively), while the opposed results appeared in CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2, MOR antagonist) group (P = 0.0021, P = 0.0286, respectively). Moreover, DAGO caused a significant decrease in MAP and HR (P = 0.0065, P = 0.0030, respectively), and PVD decreased significantly after DAGO microinjection in PVN (P = 0.0383). CTAP not only blocked the effect of DAGO but also significantly increased MAP, HR and PVD (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0010, P = 0.0074, respectively). Meanwhile, a significant increase was observed in BSM-EMG activity after microinjecting of CTAP (P = 0.0022), accompanied by visible BSM contraction. Additionally, anterograde monosynaptic transneuronal tracer AAV1 labeling revealed that neurons in PVN projected directly to LSt cells in L3-4 spinal cord. These results indicate that MORs in PVN centrally mediate ejaculation by regulating the sympathetic outflow, which may be treated as a therapeutic target for ejaculation disorders in the future.
- Can Botulinum-A Toxin Be Used to Delay Ejaculation: Results of an Ejaculation Model in Male Rats. [Journal Article]J Sex Med 2019; 16(9):1338-1343JS
- CONCLUSIONS: Botulinum-A toxin injection is a potential treatment option for PE and should be further investigated by future clinical studies.Injection of botulinum-A toxin into the BS muscle in rats significantly delayed the ejaculation latency time and affected the expulsion phase. Ongün S, Acar S, Koca P, et al. Can Botulinum-A Toxin Be Used to Delay Ejaculation: Results of an Ejaculation Model in Male Rats. J Sex Med 2019;16:1338-1343.
- Activity-Based Training Alters Penile Reflex Responses in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury. [Journal Article]J Sex Med 2019; 16(8):1143-1154JS
- CONCLUSIONS: ABT has a positive influence on sexual function and provides a potential therapy to enhance the efficacy of current sexual dysfunction therapies in the male SCI population.These results indicate that task-specific stepping and/or loading provide sensory input to the spinal cord impacting the neural circuitry responsible for sexual function. Steadman CJ, Hoey RF, Montgomery LR, et al. Activity-Based Training Alters Penile Reflex Responses in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury. J Sex Med 2019; 16:1143-1154.
- Three muscle slings of the pelvic floor in women: an anatomic study. [Journal Article]Anat Sci Int 2019AS
- The region anterior to the anal canal in women is composed of intertwined smooth and skeletal muscles. The present study aimed to clarify skeletal muscle morphology in the anterior region of the anal canal. The pelvic floor muscles of 28 pelvic halves from 16 female cadavers (mean age 79.75 years) were dissected from the inferior aspect to examine the perineal muscles, followed by midline transec…
The region anterior to the anal canal in women is composed of intertwined smooth and skeletal muscles. The present study aimed to clarify skeletal muscle morphology in the anterior region of the anal canal. The pelvic floor muscles of 28 pelvic halves from 16 female cadavers (mean age 79.75 years) were dissected from the inferior aspect to examine the perineal muscles, followed by midline transection and dissection from the inner surface to examine the pelvic outlet muscles. The bulbospongiosus muscle was found to be attached to the lateral surface of the external anal sphincter. The superficial transverse perineal muscle crossed superiorly to the bulbospongiosus and coursed medially toward its contralateral muscle bundle deep to the anterior portion of the external anal sphincter. The superficial transverse perineal muscle formed the middle sling. From the medial aspect, the anterior part of the levator ani was divided into anterior and posterior bundles to form the anterior and posterior slings, respectively. This study proposes that three muscular slings could be important in supporting the pelvic floor in women. In addition, this study shows that the anterior skeletal muscular wall of the anal canal is composed of the anterior muscle bundle of the levator ani, superficial transverse perineal, and proper external anal sphincter muscles.
- Aframomum melegueta prevents the ejaculatory complications of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in sexually experienced male rats: Evidence from intravaginal and fictive ejaculations. [Journal Article]J Integr Med 2019; 17(5):359-365JI
- CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the ejaculatory disturbance of hypothyroidism in male rats and its prevention with A. melegueta extracts.
- StatPearls: Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Perineal Body [BOOK]StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)BOOK
- Introduction The perineal body (PB), also referred to as the central tendon of the perineum, is a fibro-muscular structure located in the midline of the perineum. Its exact location is the midline of the perineum at the junction of the anus and urogenital triangle in both females and males. In males, it is located between the anus and bulb of the penis, whereas in females it is found between the …
Introduction The perineal body (PB), also referred to as the central tendon of the perineum, is a fibro-muscular structure located in the midline of the perineum. Its exact location is the midline of the perineum at the junction of the anus and urogenital triangle in both females and males. In males, it is located between the anus and bulb of the penis, whereas in females it is found between the anus and the posterior limit of the vulvar orifice. The perineal body helps strengthen the pelvic floor. It provides attachments to the following muscles: The bulbospongiosus muscle (striated muscle) adheres anterolaterally to the PB. Deep transverse perineal muscle (male) adheres laterally to the PB. Compressor urethra muscle (female) adheres anteriorly to the PB. The external anal sphincter muscle adheres posterolaterally to the PB. The internal anal sphincter muscle intermingles with LAM and adheres posteriorly to the PB. The external urethral sphincter muscle adheres anteriorly to the PB. Levator anis muscle (the internal fibers of the puborectalis muscle) adheres laterally to the PB along its whole vertical length. The recto-urethralis muscle (perineal smooth muscle) runs from the LAM laterally to the bulbourethral glands adheres anterolaterally to the puborectalis muscle. The longitudinal anis muscle (LAM) strongly adheres anteriorly and anterolaterally to the PB and puborectalis muscle. Two fascial structures join to the perineal body: The superficial perineal fascia, the perineal membrane joins the PB anteriorly. The rectovaginal septum (female) joins the PB superiorly. The recto prostatic septum (male) joins the PB superiorly. The perineal body is critical for maintaining the integrity of the pelvic floor, especially in females. The perineal body may rupture during vaginal delivery. Once this occurs, it leads to a widening of the gap between the free borders of the levator ani muscles on both sides. This widening gap predisposes women to prolapse of the rectum, uterus, and sometimes the urinary bladder. It is also involved in the surgical procedure for anorectal tumors to achieve a tumor-free circumferential resection margin for reducing the risk of local recurrence.
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- Signs of damage in pelvic floor muscles at the end of pregnancy in rabbits. [Journal Article]Int Urogynecol J 2019; 30(6):977-984IU
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate reliable signs of damage to Bsm and Pcm muscles in young female rabbits passing different reproductive stages. Damage to the Bsm muscles as detected at the end of pregnancy persisted after delivery. This was not the case for Pcm muscles, in which damage seems to appear after delivery.