- Use of urinary naloxone levels in a single provider practice: a case study. [Journal Article]Addict Sci Clin Pract 2020; 15(1):3AS
- CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that naloxone may serve as an additional flag to identify patient "spiking" of urine samples with use of the combination product of buprenorphine-naloxone.
- Case report: Successful induction of buprenorphine/naloxone using a microdosing schedule and assertive outreach. [Journal Article]Addict Sci Clin Pract 2020; 15(1):2AS
- CONCLUSIONS: A microdosing schedule can be used to induce a patient onto buprenorphine/naloxone with no apparent withdrawal; gradually reducing illicit substance use. This case report builds on previous literature, highlighting ways to minimize barriers to induction of buprenorphine/naloxone, using a microdosing schedule and assertive outreach. Given the safety profile of buprenorphine and its potential to be a lifesaving intervention, a larger study of microdosing is indicated.
- Determinants of selection into buprenorphine/naloxone among people initiating opioid agonist treatment in British Columbia. [Journal Article]Drug Alcohol Depend 2020; 207:107798DA
- CONCLUSIONS: Provider characteristics were more influential in selection of buprenorphine/naloxone over methadone informing subsequent analyses of comparative effectiveness of these regimens.
- Rapid Assessment of Opioid Exposure and Treatment in Cities Through Robotic Collection and Chemical Analysis of Wastewater. [Journal Article]J Med Toxicol 2020JM
- CONCLUSIONS: Wastewater-based epidemiology with smart sewer selection and robotic wastewater collection is feasible to detect the presence of specific opioids, naloxone, methadone, and buprenorphine within a city. These results suggest that wastewater epidemiology could be used to detect patterns of opioid exposure and may ultimately provide information for opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment and harm reduction programs.
- Opioid-related treatment, interventions, and outcomes among incarcerated persons: A systematic review. [Journal Article]PLoS Med 2019; 16(12):e1003002PM
- CONCLUSIONS: In this carefully conducted systematic review, we found that correctional facilities should scale up OAT among incarcerated persons with OUD. The strategy is likely to decrease opioid-related overdose and mortality, reduce opioid use and other risky behaviors during and after incarceration, and improve retention in addiction treatment after prison release. Immediate OAT after prison release and additional preventive strategies such as the distribution of NLX kits to at-risk individuals upon release greatly decrease the occurrence of opioid-related overdose and mortality. In an effort to mitigate the impact of the opioid-related overdose crisis, it is crucial to scale up OAT and opioid-related overdose prevention strategies (e.g., NLX) within a continuum of treatment before, during, and after incarceration.
- Building a Group-Based Opioid Treatment (GBOT) blueprint: a qualitative study delineating GBOT implementation. [Journal Article]Addict Sci Clin Pract 2019; 14(1):47AS
- CONCLUSIONS: While further research on the effectiveness of GBOT and its individual implementation components is needed, the blueprint outlined here provides an initial framework to help office-based opioid treatment sites implement a successful GBOT approach and hence potentially serve as future study sites to establish efficacy of the model. This blueprint can also be used to continuously monitor how components of GBOT influence treatment outcomes, providing an empirical framework for the ongoing process of refining implementation strategies.
- Determination of buprenorphine, naloxone and phase I and phase II metabolites in rat whole blood by LC-MS/MS. [Journal Article]J Pharm Biomed Anal 2019; 180:113042JP
- Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone combination are maintenance treatments used worldwide. However, since their marketing, despite ceiling respiratory effects, poisonings and fatalities have been attributed to buprenorphine misuse and overdose. Therefore, to better understand the mechanisms of buprenorphine-related toxicity in vivo, experimental investigations have been conducted, mainly in …
Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone combination are maintenance treatments used worldwide. However, since their marketing, despite ceiling respiratory effects, poisonings and fatalities have been attributed to buprenorphine misuse and overdose. Therefore, to better understand the mechanisms of buprenorphine-related toxicity in vivo, experimental investigations have been conducted, mainly in the rat. We developed a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with electrospray ionization for the simultaneous quantification of buprenorphine, naloxone and their metabolites (norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine glucuronide, norbuprenorphine glucuronide and naloxone glucuronide) in rat whole blood. Compounds were extracted from whole blood by protein precipitation and chromatographically separated using gradient elution of aqueous ammonium formate and methanol in a Raptor Biphenyl core-shell column (100 mm x 3,0 mm x 2,7 μm). Following electrospray ionization, quantification was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by the tandem mass spectrometer API 3200 system. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to the currently accepted criteria for bioanalytical method validation. The method required small sample volumes (50 μL) and was sensitive with limits of quantification of 6.9, 6.2, 3.6, 3.3, 1.3 and 57.7 ng/mL for buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine glucuronide, norbuprenorphine glucuronide, naloxone and naloxone glucuronide respectively. The upper limit of quantification was 4000 ng/ml for all the studied compounds. Trueness (88-115 %), repeatability and intermediate precision (both <15%) were in accordance with the international recommendations. The procedure was successfully used to quantify these compounds in the whole blood sample from one rat 24 h after the intravenous administration of buprenorphine/naloxone (30.0/7.5 mg/kg).
- Hedonic eating behaviors and food preferences associated with medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. [Journal Article]J Opioid Manag 2019 Nov/Dec; 15(6):487-494JO
- CONCLUSIONS: Individuals receiving MAT exhibit preferences for sweet and fast foods that appear to be influenced by the proximity of such foods. FA was present. Collectively, such eating behaviors and food preferences may pose additional adverse health consequences and associated co-morbidities. This underlies the importance of comprehensive healthcare for patients with OUD, including nutrition education and evaluation of eating behaviors and food preferences.
- Fentanyl analogue overdose: Key lessons in management in the synthetic opioid age. [Case Reports]J Opioid Manag 2019 Sep/Oct; 15(5):428-432JO
- Fentanyl overdoses are growing at an alarming rate. Fentanyl is often mixed into heroin and counterfeit prescription opioid pills without the customer's knowledge and only detected upon laboratory analysis. This is problematic because fentanyl analogues like carfentanil are 10,000 times more potent than morphine and pose new challenges to opioid overdose management. A 62-year-old male with an ove…
Fentanyl overdoses are growing at an alarming rate. Fentanyl is often mixed into heroin and counterfeit prescription opioid pills without the customer's knowledge and only detected upon laboratory analysis. This is problematic because fentanyl analogues like carfentanil are 10,000 times more potent than morphine and pose new challenges to opioid overdose management. A 62-year-old male with an overdose from a rare fentanyl analogue, acrylfentanyl, was given two doses of intranasal 2 mg naloxone with improvements in respiratory rate. In lieu of more naloxone, his trachea was intubated and he was admitted to the intensive care unit. He subsequently developed ventilator-associated pneumonia and then a pulmonary embolism. He did not receive any opioid use disorder treatment and returned back to the emergency department with an opioid overdose 21 days after discharge. We are encountering an unprecedented rise in synthetic opioid overdose deaths as we enter the third decade of the opioid epidemic. Thus, it is imperative to be aware of the features and management of overdoses from fentanyl and its analogues. This includes protecting against occupational exposure, administering adequate doses of naloxone, and working with public health departments to respond to fentanyl outbreaks. Additionally, fentanyl overdoses represent a critical opportunity to move beyond acute stabilization, start buprenorphine or methadone for opioid use disorder during hospitalization, link patients to ongoing addiction treatment, and distribute naloxone into the community to help curb the overdose epidemic.
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- Barriers and facilitators to buprenorphine use for opioid agonist treatment: protocol for a scoping review. [Journal Article]BMJ Open 2019; 9(12):e032285BO
- In the context of the opioid crisis in North America, the benefits of evidence-based opioid agonist treatments such as buprenorphine/naloxone have not been optimised due to low uptake. Numerous factors contribute to the underuse of buprenorphine, and theory-informed approaches to identify and address implementation barriers and facilitators are needed. This scoping review aims to characterise the…
In the context of the opioid crisis in North America, the benefits of evidence-based opioid agonist treatments such as buprenorphine/naloxone have not been optimised due to low uptake. Numerous factors contribute to the underuse of buprenorphine, and theory-informed approaches to identify and address implementation barriers and facilitators are needed. This scoping review aims to characterise the barriers and facilitators at the patient, healthcare professional, organisation and system level according to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), and identify gaps to inform practice and policy.