- The Role of Antiobesity Agents in the Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. [Review]
- FMFolia Med (Plovdiv) 2018 Dec 01; 60(4):512-520
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Obesity is frequently present in these patients and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both the…
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Obesity is frequently present in these patients and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of the syndrome, particularly infertility, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance (IR). Diet and exercise is the mainstay of management of obesity in patients with PCOS. In contrast, the eff ects of antiobesity agents on weight and on the obesityrelated characteristics of the syndrome remain unclear. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current data on the eff ects of antiobesity drugs approved in Europe (orlistat, liraglutide 3 mg od and naltrexone/bupropion) on weight loss in patients with PCOS and to discuss their impact on the endocrine, reproductive and metabolic abnormalities of this population. Several studies reported that orlistat induces weight loss, improves IR and reduces androgen levels in PCOS. In contrast, data regarding the eff ects of the dose of liraglutide that is approved for the treatment of obesity (3 mg od) are very limited. Liraglutide 1.2-1.8 mg od results in weight loss in these patients but does not aff ect IR or androgen levels. Finally, there are no studies that evaluated naltrexone/bupropion in patients with PCOS and early studies reported conflicting results regarding the eff ects of naltrexone monotherapy on weight, IR and androgen levels. In conclusion, orlistat appears to have a role in the management of overweight and obese patients with PCOS whereas more studies are needed to clarify the role of liraglutide and naltrexone/bupropion.
- Update on drug safety evaluation of naltrexone/bupropion for the treatment of obesity. [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Drug Saf 2019 May 16; :1-4
- Patient Characteristics Associated with Receipt of Prescription Weight-Management Medications Among Veterans Participating in MOVE! [Journal Article]
- OObesity (Silver Spring) 2019 May 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Of patients engaged in MOVE! in the VHA, 1.1% received WMM. WMM are underutilized among veterans. Additional research is needed to understand barriers to incorporating WMM into comprehensive obesity treatment plans.
- Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Associated with Pharmacological Weight Loss: A Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Clin Res Trials 2019; 4(1)
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated the favorable and significant effect of pharmacological weight reduction strategies on weight loss, blood pressure reduction, glycemic control (A1C reduction), and CVD mortality.While weight loss without pharmacological means has been shown to reduce CVD risk, the mechanism by which weight loss medications impact CVD risk reduction could be a direct effect of these agents or merely an effect of weight reduction itself. Weight loss has been noted to modify risk factors via improving insulin sensitivity, reducing inflammation, decreasing blood pressure and modifying the lipid profile, In addition, the mechanism of action of the medications are not directly anti-inflammatory, and do not directly modify insulin sensitivity, blood pressure or the lipid profile. Thus, it is most likely that the benefit on cardiovascular disease from these therapies is via weight reduction and not direct medication effect.Given the limited efficacy of the lifestyle modification on sustained weight loss and the surgical risk and limited availability of bariatric surgical options. Our data suggests pharmacological weight loss therapy may be a valuable treatment option to reduce CVD risk in obese patients. Further research is needed to clarify the effects these therapies on overall mortality and evaluate the mechanisms by which these medications reduce CVD risk factors and mortality.
- Pharmacological Treatment of Youth Substance Use Disorders. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2019 Apr 22
- While the majority of youth who experiment with alcohol and drugs do not develop problematic levels of use, 5% of adolescents and 15% of young adults meet criteria for a substance use disorder (SUD).…
While the majority of youth who experiment with alcohol and drugs do not develop problematic levels of use, 5% of adolescents and 15% of young adults meet criteria for a substance use disorder (SUD). Pharmacotherapy, in combination with behavioral interventions, has the potential to increase the likelihood of successful treatment for youth struggling with SUD; however, the literature in this area is limited. To date, there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for adolescent SUD, other than buprenorphine, which has been approved down to 16 years of age for opioid use disorder. Despite alcohol and cannabis being the most commonly used substances during adolescence, only three medications have been tested among this demographic, and only two have warranted further study (i.e., naltrexone for alcohol and N-acetylcysteine for cannabis use disorder). Although less common in adolescents and young adults, the most promising pharmacological findings for this age group are for opioid (buprenorphine) and tobacco (bupropion and varenicline) use disorders. In addition, despite the recent marked increases in electronic nicotine delivery systems (i.e., vaping) among youth, treatment strategies are still in their infancy and no recommendation exists for how to promote cessation for youth vaping. Current findings are limited by: small, demographically homogeneous samples; few trials, including a substantial number of youth younger than 18; low retention; medication adherence rates; and minimal information on effective dosing levels and long-term outcomes. Overall, pharmacotherapy may be a potentially effective strategy to increase treatment effects; however, more rigorous research trials are warranted before FDA approval would be granted for any of the potential adjunctive medications in this age group.
- Sex differences in the effect of bupropion and naltrexone combination on alcohol drinking in mice. [Journal Article]
- PBPharmacol Biochem Behav 2019; 181:28-36
- A fixed dose combination of bupropion (BPP) and naltrexone (NTX), Contrave®, is an FDA approved pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity. A recent study found that combining BPP with low-dose NTX…
A fixed dose combination of bupropion (BPP) and naltrexone (NTX), Contrave®, is an FDA approved pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity. A recent study found that combining BPP with low-dose NTX reduced alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring male rats. To explore potential pharmacological effects of the BPP + NTX combination on alcohol drinking, both male and female C57Bl/6J mice were tested on one-week drinking-in-the dark (DID) and three-week intermittent access (IA) models. Neuronal proopiomelanocortin (POMC) enhancer knockout (nPE-/-) mice with hypothalamic-specific deficiency of POMC, and its bioactive peptides melanocyte stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin, were used as a genetic control for the effects of the BPP + NTX. A single administration of BPP + NTX (10 mg/kg + 1 mg/kg) decreased alcohol intake after DID in C57Bl/6J males, but not females. Also in C57Bl/6J males, BPP + NTX reduced intake of the caloric reinforcer sucrose, but not the non-caloric reinforcer saccharin. In contrast, BPP + NTX had no effect on alcohol DID in nPE-/- males. Pretreatment with the selective melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) antagonist HS014 reversed the anti-dipsogenic effect of BPP + NTX on alcohol DID in C57Bl/6J males. In the 3-week chronic IA model, single or repeated administrations for four days of BPP + NTX reduced alcohol intake and preference in C57Bl/6J males only. The behavioral measures observed in C57Bl/6J mice provide clear evidence that BPP + NTX profoundly reduced alcohol drinking in males, but the doses tested were not effective in females. Furthermore, our results suggest a hypothalamic POMC/MC4R-dependent mechanism for the observed BPP + NTX effects on alcohol drinking in male mice.
- Understanding the Mechanism of Action and Clinical Implications of Anti-Obesity Drugs Recently Approved in Korea. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Fam Med 2019; 40(2):63-71
- The Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety has approved three anti-obesity drugs for long-term management in the past decade. In addition, since 2019, bariatric surgery has been financially supporte…
The Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety has approved three anti-obesity drugs for long-term management in the past decade. In addition, since 2019, bariatric surgery has been financially supported by National Health Insurance Service in Korea. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the clinical implications of the recently approved anti-obesity drugs, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide are explained. Lorcaserin stimulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons and inhibits neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, which results in the activation of melanocortin 3/4 receptors. Naltrexone/bupropion stimulates POMC neurons through bupropion; this stimulation is augmented by blocking the autoinhibitory mechanism of POMC with naltrexone. The hypophagic effect of liraglutide is mediated through the direct activation of POMC/CART neurons and the indirect suppression of NPY/AgRP neurons through γ-aminobutyric acid-dependent signaling, with adjunctive suppression of the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. In addition to liraglutide, another glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, semaglutide, is expected to be added to the list of anti-obesity drugs in the near future. In patients with obesity and high cardiovascular risk, lorcaserin was considered neutral and liraglutide was considered favorable, whereas inconclusive results were obtained for naltrexone/bupropion.
- Impact of Substance Use Disorder Pharmacotherapy on Executive Function: A Narrative Review. [Review]
- FPFront Psychiatry 2019; 10:98
- Substance use disorders are chronic, relapsing, and harmful conditions characterized by executive dysfunction. While there are currently no approved pharmacotherapy options for stimulant and cannabis…
Substance use disorders are chronic, relapsing, and harmful conditions characterized by executive dysfunction. While there are currently no approved pharmacotherapy options for stimulant and cannabis use disorders, there are several evidence-based options available to help reduce symptoms during detoxification and aid long-term cessation for those with tobacco, alcohol and opioid use disorders. While these medication options have shown clinical efficacy, less is known regarding their potential to enhance executive function. This narrative review aims to provide a brief overview of research that has investigated whether commonly used pharmacotherapies for these substance use disorders (nicotine, bupropion, varenicline, disulfiram, acamprosate, nalmefene, naltrexone, methadone, buprenorphine, and lofexidine) effect three core executive function components (working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility). While pharmacotherapy-induced enhancement of executive function may improve cessation outcomes in dependent populations, there are limited and inconsistent findings regarding the effects of these medications on executive function. We discuss possible reasons for the mixed findings and suggest some future avenues of work that may enhance the understanding of addiction pharmacotherapy and cognitive training interventions and lead to improved patient outcomes.
- Bupropion, Alone and in Combination with Naltrexone, Blunts Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking and Intake Following Chronic Intermittent Access to Ethanol in Male C57BL/6J Mice. [Journal Article]
- ACAlcohol Clin Exp Res 2019; 43(5):783-790
- CONCLUSIONS: BUP, alone and in combination with NAL, may represent a novel approach to treating binge EtOH intake. We are currently assessing the efficacy of BUP to curb binge drinking in a phase II clinical trial experiment.
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- Effects of different pharmacologic smoking cessation treatments on body weight changes and success rates in patients with nicotine dependence: A network meta-analysis. [Review]
- ORObes Rev 2019; 20(6):895-905
- Smoking cessation is a public health priority to reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality. However, weight gain is a known primary reason for not trying to quit smoking. The aim of the current …
Smoking cessation is a public health priority to reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality. However, weight gain is a known primary reason for not trying to quit smoking. The aim of the current study was to investigate differences in weight gain associated with different pharmacological smoking cessation interventions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported weight gain related to pharmacologic treatments for smoking cessation were analysed using network meta-analysis with a random effects model. Thirty-one RCTs with 5650 participants were included. Ten drugs and 22 regimens were identified. Nicotine patches plus fluoxetine, topiramate with/without nicotine patches, nicotine patches plus methylphenidate, nicotine spray/gum/lozenges, high-dose nicotine patches (42 mg/21 mg), naltrexone with/without nicotine patches, or bupropion with/without nicotine patches were associated with less weight gain than the placebo/control arm. Nicotine patches plus fluoxetine were associated with the least weight gain of all smoking cessation treatments. In addition, the nicotine patch plus topiramate and nicotine inhaler was associated with the best success rate and the least dropout rate, respectively. Overall, the nicotine patch 14 mg plus fluoxetine 40 mg, nicotine patch 14 mg plus fluoxetine 20 mg, and topiramate 200 mg would be the three best pharmacologic treatments based upon both weight gain effect and success rate.