- Symptomatic central nervous system tuberculoma, a case report in the United States and literature review. [Case Reports]
- IIDCases 2019; 17:e00582
- Intracranial tuberculoma is one of the rare central nervous system manifestations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), seen in only 1% of tuberculosis patients. It can manifest as single or multiple …
Intracranial tuberculoma is one of the rare central nervous system manifestations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), seen in only 1% of tuberculosis patients. It can manifest as single or multiple lesions, most commonly located in the frontal and parietal lobes. Clinical features are similar to any space-occupying lesion in the brain and can present in the absence of MTB symptoms in other parts of the body. In this article, a 69-year-old immunocompetent man, with history of treated latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was reported. He presented with multiple joint arthralgias, weight loss, odd behavior, forgetfulness, intermittent fevers and syncope. Brain imaging revealed numerous enhancing intra-parenchymal lesions in cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Patient was successfully treated with anti-tuberculosis medications and corticosteroids, with clinical improvement on future follow ups. High clinical suspicion for tuberculoma as a differential diagnosis of any brain lesion, even in immunocompetent patients in low MTB prevalence countries, can result in early diagnosis and successful clinical outcomes.
- Runs of homozygosity and testicular cancer risk. [Journal Article]
- AAndrology 2019; 7(4):555-564
- CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data do not support a major role in the risk of TGCT for recessively acting alleles acting through homozygosity, as measured by RoH in outbred populations of cases and controls.
- Glial and neuronal expression of the Inward Rectifying Potassium Channel Kir7.1 in the adult mouse brain. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anat 2019 Jul 15
- Inward Rectifying Potassium channels (Kir) are a large family of ion channels that play key roles in ion homeostasis and neuronal excitability. The most recently described Kir subtype is Kir7.1, whic…
Inward Rectifying Potassium channels (Kir) are a large family of ion channels that play key roles in ion homeostasis and neuronal excitability. The most recently described Kir subtype is Kir7.1, which is known as a K+ transporting subtype. Earlier studies localised Kir7.1 to subpopulations of neurones in the brain. However, the pattern of Kir7.1 expression across the brain has not previously been examined. Here, we have determined neuronal and glial expression of Kir7.1 in the adult mouse brain, using immunohistochemistry and transgenic mouse lines expressing reporters specific for astrocytes [glial fibrillary acidic protein-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFAP-EGFP], myelinating oligodendrocytes (PLP-DsRed), oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC, Pdgfra-creERT 2 /Rosa26-YFP double-transgenic mice) and all oligodendrocyte lineage cells (SOX10-EGFP). The results demonstrate significant neuronal Kir7.1 immunostaining in the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and pons, as well as the striatum and hypothalamus. In addition, astrocytes are shown to be immunopositive for Kir7.1 throughout grey and white matter, with dense immunostaining on cell somata, primary processes and perivascular end-feet. Immunostaining for Kir7.1 was observed in oligodendrocytes, myelin and OPCs throughout the brain, although immunostaining was heterogeneous. Neuronal and glial expression of Kir7.1 is confirmed using neurone-glial cortical cultures and optic nerve glial cultures. Notably, Kir7.1 have been shown to regulate the excitability of thalamic neurones and our results indicate this may be a widespread function of Kir7.1 in neurones throughout the brain. Moreover, based on the function of Kir7.1 in multiple transporting epithelia, Kir7.1 are likely to play an equivalent role in the primary glial function of K+ homeostasis. Our results indicate Kir7.1 are far more pervasive in the brain than previously recognised and have potential importance in regulating neuronal and glial function.
- Directly compressed rosuvastatin calcium tablets that offer hydrotropic and micellar solubilization for improved dissolution rate and extent of drug release. [Journal Article]
- SPSaudi Pharm J 2019; 27(5):619-628
- The objective was to use caffeine and Soluplus® to improve the dissolution rate and to maintain a concentration of BCS Class II rosuvastatin calcium that exceeds its solubility. Caffeine and Soluplus…
The objective was to use caffeine and Soluplus® to improve the dissolution rate and to maintain a concentration of BCS Class II rosuvastatin calcium that exceeds its solubility. Caffeine and Soluplus® together substantially improved the dissolution rate and the extent of rosuvastatin release. Formulations for direct compression tablets included Formulation F1, a control with drug but with neither caffeine nor Soluplus® present; F2 with drug-caffeine complex; F3 with drug and Soluplus® and F4 with drug-caffeine complex and Soluplus®. Each formulation blend provided satisfactory flow properties. Tablets were comparable in mass, hardness and friability. A marked decrease in disintegration time occurred when the hydrotropic or micellar agent was included in the formulation. Assay (98-100%) and content uniformity (99-100%) results met requirements. Release studies in pH 1.2, 6.6, and 6.8 buffers revealed the superiority of F4. At 45 min sampling time, F3 and F4 tablets each provided a cumulative drug release greater than 70% in each medium. F2 tablets exhibited compliance to official standards in pH 6.6 and 6.8 buffers but not in pH 1.2 buffer, whereas tablets based on F1 failed in each medium. Two-factor ANOVA of the release data revealed a statistical difference across the four formulations in each release medium. Pairwise comparison of release profiles demonstrated that, of the four formulations, F4 provided the most effectively enhanced dissolution rate, improvement to the extent of drug release and support of a concentration higher than the solubility of rosuvastatin calcium.
- Optimizing Hydrophobicity and Photocatalytic Activity of PDMS-Coated Titanium Dioxide. [Journal Article]
- AAACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Jul 09
- Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can be linked to the surface of metal-oxide photocatalysts by immersion and UV illumination. The surfaces become hydrophobic and keep their hydrophobicity even under exten…
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can be linked to the surface of metal-oxide photocatalysts by immersion and UV illumination. The surfaces become hydrophobic and keep their hydrophobicity even under extended UV exposure. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a prominent example of a metal-oxide photocatalyst. Here, we studied the influence of a grafted PDMS layer on the photocatalytic activity and wetting properties of TiO2. By varying the molecular weight of PDMS, we controlled the thickness of the polymer layer from 0.6 to 5.5 nm. We recommend a PDMS molecular weight of 6 kDa. It leads to a grafted PDMS layer thickness of 2.2 nm, a receding contact angle of 94°, a low contact angle hysteresis of 9°, and is still photocatalytically active.
- Classification of Perceived Mental Stress Using A Commercially Available EEG Headband. [Journal Article]
- IJIEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2019 Jul 02
- Human stress is a serious health concern, which must be addressed with appropriate actions for a healthy society. This paper presents an experimental study to ascertain the appropriate phase, when el…
Human stress is a serious health concern, which must be addressed with appropriate actions for a healthy society. This paper presents an experimental study to ascertain the appropriate phase, when electroencephalography (EEG) based data should be recorded for classification of perceived mental stress. The process involves data acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction and selection, and classification. The stress level of each subject is recorded by using a standard perceived stress scale questionnaire, which is then used to label the EEG data. The data are divided into two (stressed and non-stressed) and three (non-stressed, mildly stressed, and stressed) classes. The EEG data of twenty eight participants are recorded using a commercially available four channel Muse EEG headband in two phases i.e., pre-activity and post-activity. Five feature groups, which include power spectral density, correlation, differential asymmetry, rational asymmetry, and power spectrum are extracted from five bands of each EEG channel. We propose a new feature selection algorithm which selects features from appropriate EEG frequency band based on classification accuracy. Three classifiers i.e., support vector machine, the Naive Bayes and multi-layer perceptron are used to classify stress level of the participants. It is evident from our results that EEG recording during the pre-activity phase is better for classifying the perceived stress. An accuracy of 92.85% and 64.28% is achieved for two- and three-class stress classification respectively, while utilizing five groups of features from theta band. Our proposed feature selection algorithm is compared with existing algorithms and gives better classification results.
- Morphological variation of the velum in children and adults using magnetic resonance imaging. [Journal Article]
- ISImaging Sci Dent 2019; 49(2):153-158
- CONCLUSIONS: When using MRI to evaluate velar morphology, the "butt" shape was most common in both children and adults. Velar shape varied significantly with age, while race and sex did not have a significant impact.
- Productivity Losses and Their Explanatory Factors Amongst People with Impaired Vision. [Journal Article]
- OEOphthalmic Epidemiol 2019 Jul 08; :1-15
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a high unemployment rate and high productivity losses amongst people with impaired vision. The probability of being employed was associated with education, HRQoL and comorbidities. We speculate that promoting education and health through effective visual rehabilitation programs may help to increase participation in the labour market. These findings can inform decisions to intervene to reduce the burden of vision loss.
- Microvascular Disease, Peripheral Artery Disease and Amputation. [Journal Article]
- CircCirculation 2019 Jul 08
- CONCLUSIONS: Independent of traditional risk factors, the presence of microvascular disease increases the risk of amputation alone and synergistically increases risk in patients with peripheral artery disease. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which this occurs.
New Search Next
- Comparative liver function assessment of natural and available drug (Ferrous sulfate) for iron-deficiency anemia in rat model. [Journal Article]
- PJPak J Pharm Sci 2019; 32(3):973-979
- To assess the comparative effect of anti-anaemic drug (ferrous sulfate) with naturally occurring anti-anaemic compound (Illicium verum commonly called star anise) on liver in rat model. Model and bot…
To assess the comparative effect of anti-anaemic drug (ferrous sulfate) with naturally occurring anti-anaemic compound (Illicium verum commonly called star anise) on liver in rat model. Model and both test groups were made anaemic. Ferrous sulfate was given to T1 group of rats as 30mg/kg body weight (b.w) and Illicium verum to T2 group of rats with dose of 80mg/kg b.w for six weeks. Illicium verum treated group (T2 rats) produced depression, decreased anxiety and enhanced short-term memory, whereas ferrous sulfate treated group (T1 rats) enhanced long term memory. The liver function test of T2 rats showed that the total bilirubin was in normal range, but direct bilirubin, SGPT, ALP and GGT were significantly decreased in T2 rats in comparison with T1 and also from model group of rats. It was concluded in this study that by comparing the effect of ferrous sulfate with naturally occurring Illicium verum on iron-defficiency anaemia, illicium verum produces same effects and can be used to treat iron-defficiency anaemia without affecting liver function.