- The major secreted protein of the whipworm parasite tethers to matrix and inhibits interleukin-13 function. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 05 28; 10(1):2344
- Infection by soil transmitted parasitic helminths, such as Trichuris spp, are ubiquitous in humans and animals but the mechanisms determining persistence of chronic infections are poorly understood. …
Infection by soil transmitted parasitic helminths, such as Trichuris spp, are ubiquitous in humans and animals but the mechanisms determining persistence of chronic infections are poorly understood. Here we show that p43, the single most abundant protein in T. muris excretions/secretions, is non-immunogenic during infection and has an unusual sequence and structure containing subdomain homology to thrombospondin type 1 and interleukin (IL)-13 receptor (R) α2. Binding of p43 to IL-13, the key effector cytokine responsible for T. muris expulsion, inhibits IL-13 function both in vitro and in vivo. Tethering of p43 to matrix proteoglycans presents a bound source of p43 to facilitate interaction with IL-13, which may underpin chronic intestinal infection. Our results suggest that exploiting the biology of p43 may open up new approaches to modulating IL-13 function and control of Trichuris infections.
- Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella infections in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. [Journal Article]
- PVPrev Vet Med 2019 Jul 01; 168:75-80
- Wild boar (Sus scrofa) was introduced in many countries of the world and is recognized as carrier of many infectious diseases. Wild game meat consumption is recognized as a source of transmission of …
Wild boar (Sus scrofa) was introduced in many countries of the world and is recognized as carrier of many infectious diseases. Wild game meat consumption is recognized as a source of transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and Trichinella spp. in free-range wild boars in Northeastern Argentine Patagonia. Between 2014 and 2018, 144 blood samples and 423 muscle samples from 423 carcasses were collected. To detect T. gondii IgG, 144 sera were processed by an immunofluorescent antibody test, and to detect anti-Trichinella IgG, 125 sera and 304 muscle juice samples were processed by ELISA. Detection of first stage larvae in muscle was performed by artificial digestion. A total of 423 wild boars muscle samples were negative to Trichinella spp. by artificial digestion. Antibodies to Trichinella spp. were detected in 2.4% (3/125) of serum samples and in 1.64% (5/304) of meat juice samples. Antibodies to T. gondii infection were detected in 12.5% (18/144) of the serum samples. This is the first study to reveal the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in wild boars from Argentina. The present results suggest that consumption of raw or undercooked wild boar meat could represent a potential source risk for toxoplasmosis in humans and that Trichinella spp. is infrequent and/or that it circulates in low burdens among wild boars in Northeastern Patagonia.
- Effects of Ascaris and Trichuris antigens on cytokine production in porcine blood mononuclear and epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- VIVet Immunol Immunopathol 2019; 211:6-9
- Helminth parasites are highly prevalent in swine production, causing chronic infections and considerable morbidity due to growth retardation. Moreover, helminths actively modulate host immune respons…
Helminth parasites are highly prevalent in swine production, causing chronic infections and considerable morbidity due to growth retardation. Moreover, helminths actively modulate host immune responses to other pathogens and/or vaccines. Here, we investigated the modulatory effects of Ascaris suum adult body fluid (ABF) and Trichuris suis Soluble Products (TsSP) on the cytokine response in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. In PBMCs, TsSP induced the secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β, but not TNF-α. Moreover, TsSP significantly enhanced the production of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 and IL-10 but suppressed the production of LPS-induced TNF-α. ABF did not induce cytokine secretion from PBMC, but suppressed LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. ABF did not have any effect on cytokine production in IPEC-J2 cells. In contrast, TsSP selectively induced the secretion of IL-6, and enhanced the IL-6 response induced by LPS. The IL-6 response appeared to be a conserved response to T. suis products, as significant secretion was also observed in alveolar macrophages. Thus, T. suis products have diverse modulatory effects on cytokine secretion in vitro, with IL-6 production a consistent feature of the innate host response.
- Effects, equity, and cost of school-based and community-wide treatment strategies for soil-transmitted helminths in Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- LctLancet 2019 05 18; 393(10185):2039-2050
- School-based deworming programmes can reduce morbidity attributable to soil-transmitted helminths in children but do not interrupt transmission in the wider community. We assessed the effects of alte…
School-based deworming programmes can reduce morbidity attributable to soil-transmitted helminths in children but do not interrupt transmission in the wider community. We assessed the effects of alternative mass treatment strategies on community soil-transmitted helminth infection.
- TGFβ-activation by dendritic cells drives Th17 induction and intestinal contractility and augments the expulsion of the parasite Trichinella spiralis in mice. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2019; 15(4):e1007657
- Helminths are highly prevalent metazoan parasites that infect over a billion of the world's population. Hosts have evolved numerous mechanisms to drive the expulsion of these parasites via Th2-driven…
Helminths are highly prevalent metazoan parasites that infect over a billion of the world's population. Hosts have evolved numerous mechanisms to drive the expulsion of these parasites via Th2-driven immunity, but these responses must be tightly controlled to prevent equally devastating immunopathology. However, mechanisms that regulate this balance are still unclear. Here we show that the vigorous Th2 immune response driven by the small intestinal helminth Trichinella spiralis, is associated with increased TGFβ signalling responses in CD4+ T-cells. Mechanistically, enhanced TGFβ signalling in CD4+ T-cells is dependent on dendritic cell-mediated TGFβ activation which requires expression of the integrin αvβ8. Importantly, mice lacking integrin αvβ8 on DCs had a delayed ability to expel a T. spiralis infection, indicating an important functional role for integrin αvβ8-mediated TGFβ activation in promoting parasite expulsion. In addition to maintaining regulatory T-cell responses, the CD4+ T-cell signalling of this pleiotropic cytokine induces a Th17 response which is crucial in promoting the intestinal muscle hypercontractility that drives worm expulsion. Collectively, these results provide novel insights into intestinal helminth expulsion beyond that of classical Th2 driven immunity, and highlight the importance of IL-17 in intestinal contraction which may aid therapeutics to numerous diseases of the intestine.
- A human case of Dioctophyma renale (giant kidney worm) accompanied by renal cancer and a retrospective study of dioctophymiasis. [Case Reports]
- PParasite 2019; 26:22
- Due to the rarity of human cases and the nonspecific clinical symptoms of dioctophymiasis, Dioctophyma renale infection is not well recognized and is easily neglected or misdiagnosed. Recently, we di…
Due to the rarity of human cases and the nonspecific clinical symptoms of dioctophymiasis, Dioctophyma renale infection is not well recognized and is easily neglected or misdiagnosed. Recently, we diagnosed a human case of dioctophymiasis accompanied by renal cancer. To enhance the understanding of human dioctophymiasis, this case is presented here, and a retrospective study of this disease was conducted based on relevant papers screened from PubMed and three Chinese databases. In the end, 32 papers describing 37 human cases of dioctophymiasis were assessed. These cases were distributed in ten countries of Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, with the highest number in China (n = 22). The majority of the cases occurred in adults (91.9%, 34/37) and involved the kidneys (83.8%, 31/37). Ectopic parasitism mainly occurred in subcutaneous tissue (83.3%, 5/6). A proportion of 45.9% (17/37) of individuals had a history of eating raw or undercooked fish or frogs. The main clinical manifestations of human dioctophymiasis were loin pain (59.5%) and hematuria (59.5%). All the cases were diagnosed based on the morphological characteristics of eggs or adults in urine or tissue sections. Currently, there is no strictly defined therapeutic approach. This is the first retrospective analysis of human cases of dioctophymiasis. These review data will deepen our understanding of dioctophymiasis and help avoid misdiagnosis in clinical practice.
- Trichinella - a hairy and meaty tale. [Historical Article]
- TMTravel Med Infect Dis 2019 Mar - Apr; 28:116
- Efficacy and safety of ivermectin and albendazole co-administration in school-aged children and adults infected with Trichuris trichiura: study protocol for a multi-country randomized controlled double-blind trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2019 Mar 18; 19(1):262
- CONCLUSIONS: This trial will provide robust results on the efficacy and safety of co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole with the aim to better inform WHO recommendations on control of STHs. Furthermore, secondary and explanatory outcomes will provide direct evidence on the extended effects of combination therapy and insight on the relationship between nutrition and morbidity parameters and infection status and intensity.
- Detection of Trichinella britovi in pork sausage suspected to be implicated in a human outbreak in Mendoza, Argentina. [Journal Article]
- PIParasitol Int 2019; 71:53-55
- Of the three Trichinella species described in South America, T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis and T. patagoniensis, only the former has been implicated in human infections from consumption of pork-deri…
Of the three Trichinella species described in South America, T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis and T. patagoniensis, only the former has been implicated in human infections from consumption of pork-derived products. During a presumed trichinellosis outbreak in 2012 in Mendoza, Argentina, we evaluated the serological responses of three patients who had eaten the incriminated food and had signs and symptoms compatible with trichinellosis, using ELISA. We also analyzed potentially contaminated pork sausage by artificial digestion technique and recovered Trichinella muscle larvae, which were identified to the species level using a PCR multiplex assay and by sequencing a region of the mitochondrial gene coding cytochrome oxidase subunit I. No antibodies were detected in the sera of the patients, probably because the samples were collected during the immunological window period. According to molecular identification, all larvae from the sausage corresponded to T. britovi. Trichinella britovi is reported here for the first time in the American Continent, and represents the only cold-tolerant member of the genus in the Neotropics. This species was most likely introduced from Europe to South America during Spanish colonization through pigs, wild boars and/or rats.
New Search Next
- Occurrence of canine and feline extra-intestinal nematodes in key endemic regions of Italy. [Journal Article]
- ATActa Trop 2019; 193:227-235
- Extra-intestinal nematodes of companion animals are of growing concern in veterinary medicine for their pathogenic potential and the current expansion throughout Europe. The present study has evaluat…
Extra-intestinal nematodes of companion animals are of growing concern in veterinary medicine for their pathogenic potential and the current expansion throughout Europe. The present study has evaluated the occurrence of major canine and feline extra-intestinal nematodes in regions of Italy having epidemiological relevance. Associations of various recorded parameters related to the examined animals have been statistically evaluated, along with a comparative analysis with the most recent epidemiological data. Overall, 1055 dogs and 1000 cats were tested. Among extra-intestinal nematodes Angiostrongylus vasorum was the most common in dogs followed by Capillaria aerophila and Dirofilaria spp.; Aelurostrongylus abstrusus was the most recorded parasite in cats, followed by C. aerophila and Troglostrongylus brevior. The statistical analysis revealed that outdoor access is associated with A. vasorum, A. abstrusus and T. brevior infections, that were also more prevalent in animals with cardio-respiratory signs. Moreover, cats aged less than 12 months had more chances to be infected by lungworms. The data herein presented confirm the occurrence and the possible risk of expansion of different extra-intestinal parasitoses of dogs and cats in Italy, underlining the importance of a constant epidemiologic vigilance and of appropriate control methods.