- Parental Harsh Discipline and Preschooler's Inhibitory Control in China: Bidirectional Relations and Gender Differences. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Interpers Violence 2019 Jun 13; :886260519854558
- The goals of this study were to examine the bidirectional associations between parental harsh discipline and Chinese preschool children's inhibitory control and to further explore the possible gender…
The goals of this study were to examine the bidirectional associations between parental harsh discipline and Chinese preschool children's inhibitory control and to further explore the possible gender differences in these associations. Participants were Chinese preschool children and their parents. At Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), both fathers and mothers, respectively, reported their use of psychological aggression and corporal punishment, and children's inhibitory control was assessed by laboratory tasks and maternal rating. Structural equation modeling revealed that child inhibitory control significantly predicted both paternal and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment 1 year later, but the predictions from both types of parental harsh discipline to child inhibitory control were nonsignificant. Multiple-group analyses further suggested that boys' but not girls' inhibitory control could significantly predict paternal corporal punishment 1 year later, and no child gender differences existed for parental psychological aggression or for maternal corporal punishment. The findings suggest that the longitudinal associations between parental hash discipline and preschool children's inhibitory control in China may differ according to the types of harsh discipline and parental and children's gender.
- Physician Participation in Lethal Injection. [Journal Article]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2019 May 09; 380(19):1790-1791
- Born for fairness: evidence of genetic contribution to a neural basis of fairness intuition. [Journal Article]
- SCSoc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2019 May 31; 14(5):539-548
- Human beings often curb self-interest to develop and enforce social norms, such as fairness, as exemplified in the ultimatum game (UG). Inspired by the dual-system account for the responder's choice …
Human beings often curb self-interest to develop and enforce social norms, such as fairness, as exemplified in the ultimatum game (UG). Inspired by the dual-system account for the responder's choice during the UG, we investigated whether the neural basis of psychological process induced by fairness is under genetic control using a twin fMRI study (62 monozygotic, 48 dizygotic; mean age: 19.32 ± 1.38 years). We found a moderate genetic contribution to the rejection rate of unfair proposals (24%-35%), independent of stake size or proposer type, during the UG. Using a voxel-level analysis, we found that genetic factors moderately contributed to unfairness-evoked activation in the bilateral anterior insula (AI), regions representing the intuition of fairness norm violations (mean heritability: left 37%, right 40%). No genetic contributions were found in regions related to deliberate, controlled processes in the UG. This study provides the first evidence that evoked brain activity by unfairness in the bilateral AI is influenced by genes and sheds light on the genetic basis of brain processes underlying costly punishment.
- Capital punishment, my sixth great grandfather, and me-an essay by J Robert Sneyd. [Journal Article]
- BMJBMJ 2019 Apr 11; 365:l1512
- Criminalising Health Care? The Use of Offences in the Mental Health Act 2015 (ACT). [Journal Article]
- JLJ Law Med 2019; 26(3):638-654
- Mental health statutes in every Australian jurisdiction contain penalties for breaching certain provisions. The Australian Capital Territory's new Mental Health Act 2015 (ACT) is notable in using not…
Mental health statutes in every Australian jurisdiction contain penalties for breaching certain provisions. The Australian Capital Territory's new Mental Health Act 2015 (ACT) is notable in using not only financial penalties, but also including specific offences and the possibility of imprisonment to regulate certain procedures related to the involuntary detention and treatment of those with mental illness. The penalties for committing the offences range from small fines to 12 months' imprisonment. There is a concern that the threat of criminal punishment may discourage practitioners from routinely using the Act's immediate detention procedure. Failure to adhere to extensive notification requirements can result in financial penalties. Private psychiatric facilities may also face particular penalties. The inclusion of separate provisions which are specifically labelled as offences in mental health legislation has received minimal attention. Criminalising aspects of mental health care creates stigma, may encourage defensive medical practice, and works against the recovery movement. There is a slow development of this trend in other health specialties.
- Legal and ethical implications of defining an optimum means of achieving unconsciousness in assisted dying. [Journal Article]
- AAnaesthesia 2019; 74(5):630-637
- A decision by a society to sanction assisted dying in any form should logically go hand-in-hand with defining the acceptable method(s). Assisted dying is legal in several countries and we have review…
A decision by a society to sanction assisted dying in any form should logically go hand-in-hand with defining the acceptable method(s). Assisted dying is legal in several countries and we have reviewed the methods commonly used, contrasting these with an analysis of capital punishment in the USA. We expected that, since a common humane aim is to achieve unconsciousness at the point of death, which then occurs rapidly without pain or distress, there might be a single technique being used. However, the considerable heterogeneity in methods suggests that an optimum method of achieving unconsciousness remains undefined. In voluntary assisted dying (in some US states and European countries), the common method to induce unconsciousness appears to be self-administered barbiturate ingestion, with death resulting slowly from asphyxia due to cardiorespiratory depression. Physician-administered injections (a combination of general anaesthetic and neuromuscular blockade) are an option in Dutch guidelines. Hypoxic methods involving helium rebreathing have also been reported. The method of capital punishment (USA) resembles the Dutch injection technique, but specific drugs, doses and monitoring employed vary. However, for all these forms of assisted dying, there appears to be a relatively high incidence of vomiting (up to 10%), prolongation of death (up to 7 days), and re-awakening from coma (up to 4%), constituting failure of unconsciousness. This raises a concern that some deaths may be inhumane, and we have used lessons from the most recent studies of accidental awareness during anaesthesia to describe an optimal means that could better achieve unconsciousness. We found that the very act of defining an 'optimum' itself has important implications for ethics and the law.
- The link between mothers' vulnerability to intimate partner violence and Children's human capital. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Res 2019; 78:187-202
- We propose a conceptual framework to examine the association between mothers' vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) and children's human capital. An important contribution of our framework…
We propose a conceptual framework to examine the association between mothers' vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) and children's human capital. An important contribution of our framework is that it uses multiple dimensions of human capital and identifies several pathways through which the negative associations of IPV translate to human capital deficits. The conceptual framework is empirically tested using a large-scale representative child-level dataset from India that includes two dimensions of children's human capital - traditional school-based measures of educational attainment, and standardized reading and arithmetic test scores reflecting cognitive ability. Additionally, our study is the first to use an indirect measure of IPV which aims to overcome underreporting bias associated with direct questioning based IPV measures. The results show significant negative correlation between mothers' vulnerability to IPV and children's human capital. The negative association is more pronounced and robust for cognitive outcomes as opposed to the commonly used school-based measures of human capital. As predicted by our conceptual framework, the negative associations are mediated by mothers' poor health and disruption of home environment. We find strong evidence of IPV-exposed children being more likely to experience corporal punishment at school reflecting signs of externalizing behavior. The indirect measure of IPV stands the test of multiple validity and robustness checks.
- Creating the Punishment Orientation Questionnaire: An Item Response Theory Approach. [Journal Article]
- PSPers Soc Psychol Bull 2019 Jan 11; :146167218818485
- The purpose of these studies was to examine the principles people engage in when thinking about punishment, using a new measure (the Punishment Orientation Questionnaire [POQ]). Although traditional …
The purpose of these studies was to examine the principles people engage in when thinking about punishment, using a new measure (the Punishment Orientation Questionnaire [POQ]). Although traditional conceptualizations of punishment divide it into utilitarianism (e.g., deterrence) and retributivism ("eye for an eye"), we argue that a more useful metric of lay attitudes concerns orientation toward or away from punishment. After pilot testing and factor analysis, we used item response theory to assess four scales: prohibitive utilitarianism (limiting punishment based on utility), prohibitive retributivism (aversion to punishing innocent people), permissive utilitarianism (willingness to give strict punishment based on the benefits thereof), and permissive retributivism (desire for just deserts). The POQ showed good predictive validity for capital jury eligibility and sentencing recommendation in response to a death penalty trial stimulus. This study provides a better understanding of how classic punishment philosophies manifest among laypersons and contributes data outside of classical test theory.
- Can empathy close the racial divide and gender gap in death penalty support? [Journal Article]
- BSBehav Sci Law 2019; 37(1):16-37
- Public opinion data indicate that the majority of US respondents support the death penalty. Research has consistently indicated, however, that Blacks and females are significantly less likely to supp…
Public opinion data indicate that the majority of US respondents support the death penalty. Research has consistently indicated, however, that Blacks and females are significantly less likely to support capital punishment than their White and male counterparts. Past research efforts attempting to account for these differences have, at best, only partially accounted for them: the racial divide and gender gap in death penalty support, while narrowed, remained evident. This study proposes that empathy, particularly ethnocultural empathy, may be a key explanatory correlate of death penalty support and that racial and gender differences in empathy may fully explain the observed racial and gender differences in death penalty support. This study uses three forms of empathy measures (cognitive, affective, and ethnocultural) to test this hypothesis using survey data from a sample of undergraduate students. Our results show that neither a variety of other "known correlates" of death penalty support nor cognitive or affective empathy scales were able to fully account for the observed racial difference in death penalty support. Ethnocultural empathy, however, was successful in reducing the effect of race on death penalty support to nonsignificance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have done so.
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- The psychopathic "label" and effects on punishment outcomes: A meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- LHLaw Hum Behav 2019; 43(1):9-25
- The current study, using a meta-analytic approach and moderation analysis, examines 22 studies reporting how psychopathic "labeling" influences perceptions on 3 punishment outcomes (dangerousness, tr…
The current study, using a meta-analytic approach and moderation analysis, examines 22 studies reporting how psychopathic "labeling" influences perceptions on 3 punishment outcomes (dangerousness, treatment amenability, and legal sentence/sanction) for 2 types of experimental studies utilizing vignettes: (a) studies in which a defendant with a psychopathic "label" is compared to a defendant with no mental health diagnosis (psychopathic label vs. no label) and (b) studies in which a defendant with a psychopathic "label" is compared to a defendant with a different psychiatric diagnosis (psychopathic label vs. other psychiatric label). Results show statistically significant or marginally significant (p < .10) summary effect sizes, albeit of different strengths, for the three punishment outcomes studied (legal sentence/sanction: d = 0.17; dangerousness: d = 0.58; and treatment amenability: d = -0.30) for studies comparing a psychopathic label versus no label. Conversely, all summary effects sizes for the three punishment outcomes in studies comparing a psychopathic label versus other psychiatric label were both weak and nonsignificant (legal sentence/sanction: d = 0.09; dangerousness: d = 0.14; and treatment amenability: d = 0.02). This suggests a significant general labeling effect, but not a specific labeling effect, for psychopathy in these studies. Further, these results suggest that the lay public, but not those in the criminal justice system, may subscribe to both general and specific labeling effects for psychopathy when it comes to punishment. This has potential implications for jury sentencing in both capital and, in select states, noncapital cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).