- Penalizing fathers who use family-friendly measures. A comparative study with university students from Ghana and Spain. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Res 2019; 82:204-220
- This article provides experimental empirical evidence on the penalization of a father of high professional status who decides to use a family friendly measure (FFM) offered by his company. A cross-cu…
This article provides experimental empirical evidence on the penalization of a father of high professional status who decides to use a family friendly measure (FFM) offered by his company. A cross-cultural sample of university students (in the field of Business Administration and Economics) from Ghana and Spain was used to evaluate a hypothetical male employee who after the birth of their child either used a reduction of the working day or worked traditional hours. We compared the results with those obtained for an identical female employee. We considered several variables that mediated the effect of using the FFM on the behavior proxy items. We also considered the participants' (explicit and implicit) attitudes towards fathers caring for their babies. We obtained strong empirical evidence on the penalization of a father who uses a reduction of the working day. However, and contrary to expectations, in Spain this penalty experienced by the father was similar to that experienced by the mother, while in Ghana it was greater.
- Exploring online problem gamblers' motivation to change. [Journal Article]
- ABAddict Behav Rep 2019; 10:100187
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings have implications for interventions designed to evoke motivation early in treatment of online problem gambling. Inducing problem gamblers to reflect on the thoughts and feelings of concerned significant others, real or fictional, could be a viable strategy to motivate online problem gamblers to consider change.
- Vasopressin, but not oxytocin, modulates responses to infant stimuli in marmosets providing care to dependent infants. [Journal Article]
- DPDev Psychobiol 2019 Jul 09
- In family-living species, the quality and patterning of caregiving is the product of an individual's role within the family (mother, father, sibling) and parental experience, both of which interact w…
In family-living species, the quality and patterning of caregiving is the product of an individual's role within the family (mother, father, sibling) and parental experience, both of which interact with underlying neurobiological substrates. Among these substrates are the nonapeptides vasopressin and oxytocin, which modulate maternal, paternal, and alloparental care. We used a nonhuman primate model of the "nuclear family," the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), to investigate relationships between caregiving experience, role within the family, and activation of either the oxytocin or vasopressin systems in shaping responsiveness to offspring. During two phases of offspring development (early infancy, juvenile), mothers, fathers, and older siblings were treated with vasopressin, oxytocin, or saline via intranasal application, and tested for responses to infant distress stimuli in a within-subjects design. Interest in infant stimuli was highest among marmosets that were caring for infants compared to those caring for juveniles, and parentally experienced marmosets were quicker to respond to infant stimuli than first-time caregivers. Moreover, marmosets treated with vasopressin showed enhanced responsiveness to infant stimuli compared to control stimuli only when caring for infants. Thus, in all classes of marmoset caregivers, vasopressin enhances responsiveness to infant-associated stimuli in caregivers during periods in which infant care is most crucial.
- Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2019; 10:1351
- In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with a mixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions. We propose that the sharing of…
In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with a mixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions. We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer and on significant others who hear and engage with the telling of the dream. Study 1 tests three correlations that are predicted by the theory of dream sharing and empathy: that trait empathy will be correlated with frequency of telling dreams to others, with frequency of listening to others' dreams, and with trait attitude toward dreams (ATD) (for which higher scores indicate positive attitude). 160 participants completed online the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. Pearson partial correlations were conducted, with age and sex partialled out. Trait empathy was found to be significantly associated with the frequency of listening to the dreams of others, frequency of telling one's own dreams to others, and attitude toward dreams. Study 2 tests the effects of discussing dreams on state empathy, using an adapted version of the Shen (2010) state empathy scale, for 27 pairs of dream sharers and discussers. Dream discussion followed the stages of the Ullman (1996) dream appreciation technique. State empathy of the dream discusser toward the dream sharer was found to increase significantly as a result of the dream discussion, with a medium effect size, whereas the dream sharer had a small decrease in empathy toward the discusser. A proposed mechanism for these associations and effects is taken from the robust findings in the literature that engagement with literary fiction can induce empathy toward others. We suggest that the dream acts as a piece of fiction that can be explored by the dreamer together with other people, and can thus induce empathy about the life circumstances of the dreamer. We discuss the speculation that the story-like characteristics of adult human dreams may have been selected for in human evolution, including in sexual selection, as part of the selection for emotional intelligence, empathy, and social bonding.
- The New Science of Practical Wisdom. [Journal Article]
- PBPerspect Biol Med 2019; 62(2):216-236
- Wisdom has been discussed for centuries in religious and philosophical texts. It is often viewed as a fuzzy psychological construct analogous to consciousness, stress, and resilience. This essay prov…
Wisdom has been discussed for centuries in religious and philosophical texts. It is often viewed as a fuzzy psychological construct analogous to consciousness, stress, and resilience. This essay provides an understanding of wisdom as a scientific construct, based on empirical research starting in the 1970s. The focus is on practical rather than theoretical wisdom. While there are different conceptualizations of wisdom, it is best defined as a complex human characteristic or trait with specific components: social decision-making, emotional regulation, prosocial behavior (such as empathy and compassion), self-reflection, acceptance of uncertainty, decisiveness, and spirituality. These psychological processes involve the fronto-limbic circuitry. Wisdom is associated with positive life outcomes including better health, well-being, happiness, life satisfaction, and resilience. Wisdom tends to increase with active aging, facilitating a contribution of wise grandparents to promoting fitness of younger kin. Despite the loss of their own fertility and physical health, older adults help enhance their children's and grandchildren's well-being, health, longevity, and fertility-the "grandmother hypothesis" of wisdom. Wisdom has important implications at individual and societal levels and is a major contributor to human thriving. We need to place a greater emphasis on promoting wisdom through our educational systems from elementary to professional schools.
- Caring behavior of nurses is linked to the implementation of bedside handover between shifts. [Journal Article]
- ECEnferm Clin 2019 Jul 04
- CONCLUSIONS: Nurses' caring behavior is linked with the implementation of the bedside handover. Nurse managers are expected to improve the caring behavior of nurses and the implementation of bedside handovers by designing a supportive environment, providing periodic supervision, and conducting the evaluation.
- Using a virtue ethics lens to develop a socially accountable community placement programme for medical students. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Med Educ 2019 Jul 05; 19(1):246
- CONCLUSIONS: This study found that MacIntyre's virtue ethics theory provided a useful theoretical lens for understanding the principles that create, maintain and sustain CBE practice.
- Nurses' experiences of learning to care in practice environments: A qualitative study. [Journal Article]
- NENurse Educ Pract 2019 Jun 21; 38:132-137
- CONCLUSIONS: Positive caring attitudes and behaviours shown to patients, staff and work were highly valued. An ability to regulate and sustain an emotional connection with patients framed student learning. Observations of nurses who preserved caring practices amidst organisational pressures were frequently chosen by students as role models who "fight" inadequate or missed care. Theoretical links between caring and resilience are strengthened by these findings.
- Do human screams permit individual recognition? [Journal Article]
- PPeerJ 2019; 7:e7087
- The recognition of individuals through vocalizations is a highly adaptive ability in the social behavior of many species, including humans. However, the extent to which nonlinguistic vocalizations su…
The recognition of individuals through vocalizations is a highly adaptive ability in the social behavior of many species, including humans. However, the extent to which nonlinguistic vocalizations such as screams permit individual recognition in humans remains unclear. Using a same-different vocalizer discrimination task, we investigated participants' ability to correctly identify whether pairs of screams were produced by the same person or two different people, a critical prerequisite to individual recognition. Despite prior theory-based contentions that screams are not acoustically well-suited to conveying identity cues, listeners discriminated individuals at above-chance levels by their screams, including both acoustically modified and unmodified exemplars. We found that vocalizer gender explained some variation in participants' discrimination abilities and response times, but participant attributes (gender, experience, empathy) did not. Our findings are consistent with abundant evidence from nonhuman primates, suggesting that both human and nonhuman screams convey cues to caller identity, thus supporting the thesis of evolutionary continuity in at least some aspects of scream function across primate species.
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- Our Environmental Value Orientations Influence How We Respond to Climate Change. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2019; 10:938
- People variably respond to global change in their beliefs, behaviors, and grief (associated with losses incurred). People that are less likely to believe in climate change, adopt pro-environmental be…
People variably respond to global change in their beliefs, behaviors, and grief (associated with losses incurred). People that are less likely to believe in climate change, adopt pro-environmental behaviors, or report ecological grief are assumed to have different psycho-cultural orientations, and do not perceive changes in environmental condition or any impact upon themselves. We test these assumptions within the context of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), a region currently experiencing significant climate change impacts in the form of coral reef bleaching and increasingly severe cyclones. We develop knowledge of environmental cultural services with the Environmental Schwartz Value Survey (ESVS) into four human value orientations that can explain individuals' environmental beliefs and behaviors: biospheric (i.e., concern for environment), altruistic (i.e., concern for others, and intrinsic values), egoistic (i.e., concern for personal resources) and hedonic values (i.e., concern for pleasure, comfort, esthetic, and spirituality). Using face-to-face quantitative survey techniques, where 1,934 residents were asked to agree or disagree with a range of statements on a scale of 1-10, we investigate people's (i) environmental values and value orientations, (ii) perceptions of environmental condition, and (iii) perceptions of impact on self. We show how they relate to the following climate change responses; (i) beliefs at a global and local scale, (ii) participation in pro-environmental behaviors, and (iii) levels of grief associated with ecological change, as measured by respective single survey questions. Results suggest that biospheric and altruistic values influenced all climate change responses. Egoistic values were only influential on grief responses. Perception of environmental change was important in influencing beliefs and grief, and perceptions of impact on self were only important in influencing beliefs. These results suggest that environmental managers could use people's environmental value orientations to more effectively influence climate change responses toward environmental stewardship and sustainability. Communications that target or encourage altruism (through understanding and empathy), biospherism (through information on climate change impacts on the environment), and egoism (through emphasizing the benefits, health and wellbeing derived from a natural resource in good condition), could work.