- Pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine during administration of vatinoxan in male neutered cats anesthetized with isoflurane. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Pharmacol Ther 2019 Jul 18
- Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, and vatinoxan is an alpha-2 antagonist believed to poorly cross the blood-brain barrier in cats. Dexmedetomidine-vatinoxan combinations are of inte…
Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, and vatinoxan is an alpha-2 antagonist believed to poorly cross the blood-brain barrier in cats. Dexmedetomidine-vatinoxan combinations are of interest in anesthetized cats because the anesthetic sparing effect of dexmedetomidine may be preserved while vatinoxan attenuates the adverse cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in cats during administration of isoflurane and vatinoxan. Six healthy adult male castrated cats were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. Vatinoxan was administered using a target-controlled infusion system intended to maintain a plasma concentration of 4 µg/ml. Dexmedetomidine, 35 µg/kg was administered intravenously over 5 min. Plasma dexmedetomidine and vatinoxan concentrations were measured at selected time points ranging from prior to 8 hr after dexmedetomidine administration using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fitted to the time-concentration data using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. A three-compartment model best fitted the data. Typical value (% interindividual variability) for the three-compartment volumes (ml/kg), the metabolic clearance and the two intercompartment distribution clearances (ml min-1 kg-1) were 168 (259), 318 (35), 1,425 (18), 12.4 (31), 39.1 (18), and 29.6 (17), respectively. Mean ± standard deviation plasma vatinoxan concentration was 2.6 ± 0.6 µg/ml.
- Curcumin ameliorates atrophy of seminal vesicle via reduction of oxidative stress in castrated mice. [Journal Article]
- PPeerJ 2019; 7:e7192
- CONCLUSIONS: Castration could cause atrophy of seminal vesicle probably via inducing oxidative stress. Curcumin treatment could reduce the oxidative stress in seminal vesicle by decreasing the expression of NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4, thereby ameliorating apoptosis and atrophy of seminal vesicle. Oxidative stress might play a role in castration-induced seminal vesicle atrophy.
- Intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, and nitrogen balance of goats fed with diets containing residue from tamarind fruit. [Journal Article]
- TATrop Anim Health Prod 2019 Jul 16
- This study is aimed at determining the maximum inclusion level of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) residues in the diet of goats on intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, and nitrogen (N) balance. Tw…
This study is aimed at determining the maximum inclusion level of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) residues in the diet of goats on intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, and nitrogen (N) balance. Twenty-four crossbred (Boer × undefined breed) castrated goat kids (5 months old and with an initial weight of 23.9 ± 0.3 kg) were assigned in a completely randomized design (4 treatments and 6 replicates). Diets consisted of Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay as the roughage (400 g/kg) source and concentrate (600 g/kg); the levels of tamarind residue inclusion were 0.0, 7.0, 14.0, and 21.0% on a dry matter (DM) basis. The experimental period lasted 23 days (15 of adaptation and 8 of sampling). Inclusion of tamarind residue in the goat kid diets did not affect (P > 0.05) the intake and digestibility of DM, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and total digestible nutrient; intake of N, urinary N, and retained N (g/day); time spent ruminating; numbers of times/day feeding, ruminating, or idling; eating efficiency of DM and NDF; number of boluses/day; and amount (g) of DM/bolus. However, there were a linear reduction in ether extract digestibility (P = 0.011) and a linear decreasing trend in non-fibrous carbohydrate digestibility (P = 0.083). The addition of tamarind residue had a positive linear effect (P = 0.041) on the time spent feeding and promoted a decreasing linear trend for the time spent idling (P = 0.063). It is recommended to include the residue from tamarind fruit at a level of 21% in diets for goat kids, as it does not affect nutrient intake and digestibility and the N balance.
- In vivo digestibility of six selected fodder species by goats in northern Ghana. [Journal Article]
- TATrop Anim Health Prod 2019 Jul 13
- An in vivo digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the digestibility of six forages. These were selected indigenous browse species and groundnut haulms in Lawra and Jirapa Districts of the Uppe…
An in vivo digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the digestibility of six forages. These were selected indigenous browse species and groundnut haulms in Lawra and Jirapa Districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana. Groundnut haulms served as a control due to its known good digestibility in small ruminants. Thirty West African Dwarf (WAD) young castrated billy goats with a mean age of 8 months were used. The average live body weight was 8.9 ± 0.1 kg. The animals were randomly assigned to the six treatments and replicated five times in a completely randomized design. They were confined in metabolism cages. The adaptation period was 3 weeks after which data was taken for 10 days. The treatments were the leaves and tiny twigs of T1 Annona senegalensis, T2 Ficus gnaphalocarpa, T3 Pericopsis laxiflora, T4 Pterocarpus erinaceus, T5 Afzelia africana, and T6 (control) Arachis hypogaea. Feed intake, faecal matter and urine output were measured. The results indicated that dry matter (DM) contents of the feedstuffs were less than 50% but crude protein (CP) contents were higher than the minimum required for sustaining ruminants. Neutral and acid detergent fibre contents were high, and F. gnaphalocarpa, in particular, contained a higher level of phosphorus (P). The amounts of feed intakes were typical of most fodder species with the exception of P. laxiflora and P. erinaceus, which were lower (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility values were also typical of most fodder species but the digestibility of A. africana fibre appeared to be lower. Nitrogen retention was positive for all test species with the exception of P. laxiflora, which was negative. Mortality was recorded in animals on P. laxiflora, and the rate was high. Pericopsis laxiflora leaves, even though morphologically similar to the leaves of P. erinaceus, were not a suitable fodder. Ficus gnaphalocarpa appeared to be the overall best fodder species in terms of nutrient uptake.
- Effect of supplementing sheep diets with macroalgae species on in vivo nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and blood amino acid profile. [Journal Article]
- AAnimal 2019 Jul 11; :1-10
- In this study, a brown macroalgae species, Saccharina latissima, processed to increase its protein concentration, and a red macroalgae species, Porphyra spp., were used to evaluate their in vivo dige…
In this study, a brown macroalgae species, Saccharina latissima, processed to increase its protein concentration, and a red macroalgae species, Porphyra spp., were used to evaluate their in vivo digestibility, rumen fermentation and blood amino acid concentrations. Four castrated rams were used, whose diets were supplemented with a protein-rich fraction of S. latissima, a commercial Porphyra spp. and soybean meal (SBM). Our results show that the protein digestibility of a diet with S. latissima extract was lower (0.55) than those with Porphyra spp. (0.64) and SBM (0.66). In spite of the higher nitrogen (N) intake of diets containing Porphyra spp. and SBM (20.9 and 19.8 g N/day, respectively) than that with S. latissima (18.6 g N/day), the ratio of N excreted in faeces to total N intake was significantly higher in the diet with S. latissima than those with Porphyra spp. and SBM. This reflects that the utilization of protein in S. latissima was impaired, possibly due to reduced microbial activity. The latter statement is corroborated by lower volatile fatty acid composition (25.6, 54.8 and 100 mmol/l for S. latissima, Porphyra spp. and SBM, respectively) and a non-significant tendency for lower ammonia concentration observed in diets with S. latissima and Porphyra spp. compared to SBM. It is important to note that the S. latissima used in this trial was rinsed during processing to remove salt. This process potentially also removes other water-soluble compounds, such as free amino acids, and may have increased the relative fraction of protein resistant to rumen degradation and intestinal absorption. Furthermore, the phlorotannins present in macroalgae may have formed complexes with protein and fibre, further limiting their degradability in rumen and absorption in small intestines. We recommend that further studies explore the extent to which processing of macroalgae affects its nutritive properties and rumen degradability, in addition to studies to measure the intestinal absorption of these macroalgae species.
- Physical, histological, endocrinological and steroidogenical evaluation of male cats postnatally exposed to sexual steroids. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2019 Jul 02; 138:47-51
- To test the hypothesis that postnatal sexual steroids induce an impairment of domestic male cat reproductive function, this study describes the physical, endocrine, steroidogenical and histological e…
To test the hypothesis that postnatal sexual steroids induce an impairment of domestic male cat reproductive function, this study describes the physical, endocrine, steroidogenical and histological effects of a single, high dose of a postnatal sexual steroid in this species. Twenty male kittens were randomly assigned within the first 24 h of birth to: Testosterone enanthate 12.5 mg sc (TE; n = 8), medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg sc (MA; n = 6), or Placebo sc (PL; n = 6). The cats were followed until puberty when they were castrated. Kittens achieved puberty without age differences among groups (P > 0.05). Two MA cats presented abnormal testicular descent. Histological evaluation of the MA (P < 0.01), but not of TE testes revealed decreased diameter (P < 0.01) and epithelial height (P < 0.01) of the seminiferous tubules. Leydig cell nuclear area was also reduced in this group. Conversely, tubular/intertubular ratio was increased in TE animals (P < 0.01). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of mRNA expression of testicular tissue revealed no significant differences among groups for StAR, CYP17A1 and androgen receptors. TE animals showed decreased CYP19A1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). In the first 4 postnatal weeks, fecal testosterone (T) values were high, basal and intermediate in TE, MA and PL (P < 0.05), respectively. These differences progressively diminished and the three groups presented basal T concentrations from the 7th week on (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the postnatal progestagen initially suppressed the gonadal axis and caused an impairment of spermatogenesis and testicular descent at puberty. Androgen treatment caused downregulation of the final steroidogenic cascade.
- Host Gender and Androgen Levels Regulate Gut Bacterial Taxa in Pigs Leading to Sex-Biased Serum Metabolite Profiles. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2019; 10:1359
- Gut microbiota regulates host metabolism and immunity. The phylogenetic composition of gut microbiota is influenced by diverse factors that include host gender. In this study, the effects of gender o…
Gut microbiota regulates host metabolism and immunity. The phylogenetic composition of gut microbiota is influenced by diverse factors that include host gender. In this study, the effects of gender on gut microbial composition and its subsequent influence on serum metabolites in pigs were evaluated. The bacterial composition of feces samples was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 293 pure-bred Duroc pigs (108 gilts and 185 entire boars) and 64 validated pigs from an eight-breed mosaic F6 population. Twenty-eight F6 boars were castrated at 80 days of age to evaluate the effects of androgen on gut microbial composition. Untargeted serum metabolite features were determined in 45 boars and 26 gilts by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The study observed an obvious influence of host gender on the gut microbial composition and identified numerous sex-biased bacterial taxa. These included Veillonellaceae, Roseburia, Bulleidia, and Escherichia which showed the higher abundance in boars, and Treponema and Bacteroides which were over-represented in gilts. Castration significantly shifted the fecal microbiota composition of the boars toward that of gilts. The predicted functional pathways of the gut microbiome related to obesity and energy harvest were enriched in gilts, and positively associated with gilt-enriched bacteria. Functional pathways related to peptidases and carbohydrate metabolism were enriched in boars and positively associated with boar-enriched bacteria. Serum metabolites related to androgen and cresol metabolism were identified as sex-biased metabolites. Correlation analysis between serum metabolites and sex-biased bacteria identified that the serum concentration of androgen-related metabolites was positively correlated with Bulleidia and Escherichia, but negatively associated with Treponema, suggesting a significant interaction between gut microbiota and host sex hormone metabolism. These results offer basic knowledge of how host gender and gut microbiota influence host metabolism.
- Estradiol Acts in Lateral Thalamic Region to Attenuate Varicella Zoster Virus Associated Affective Pain. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2019 Jul 02
- Varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in chicken pox and herpes zoster. Female rats show a higher level of herpes zoster associated pain than males, consistent with human studies. In this study, we ad…
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in chicken pox and herpes zoster. Female rats show a higher level of herpes zoster associated pain than males, consistent with human studies. In this study, we addressed the novel hypothesis that sex difference in herpes zoster associated pain is due, in part, to estradiol modulating activity in the thalamus. To test this hypothesis a high and low physiological dose of estradiol was administered to castrated and ovariectomized rats and the affective pain response was measured after injection of VZV into the whisker pad. Thalamic infusion of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 concomitant with a high dose of estradiol addressed the role of estradiol binding to its receptor to effect pain. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) positive cells were measured in excitatory (glutaminase positive) and inhibitory (glutamate decarboxylase 67 positive) cells of the lateral thalamic region. Our results show that a high dose of estradiol significantly reduced the pain response in both males and females. pERK significantly increased in excitatory cells after treatment with a low dose of estradiol and increased in inhibitory cells after treatment with a high dose of estradiol. Administration of ICI 182,780 significantly increased the pain response, reduced expression of GABA related genes in the thalamic region and significantly reduced the number of inhibitory cells expressing pERK. The results suggest that estradiol attenuates herpes zoster pain by increasing the activity of inhibitory neurons within the thalamus and that this reduction includes an estrogen receptor dependent mechanism.
- Fighting Females: Neural and Behavioral Consequences of Social Defeat Stress in Female Mice. [Journal Article]
- BPBiol Psychiatry 2019 May 13
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that CFW female mice living with male conspecifics can be used as aggressive residents in an ethological model of female social defeat stress. These novel behavioral methods will encourage further studies of sex-specific neural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations to chronic stress and the biological bases for interfemale aggression.
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- Testicular estradiol and the pattern of Sertoli cell proliferation in prepuberal bulls. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2019 Sep 15; 136:60-65
- Sertoli cells nourish developing sperm with the number of Sertoli cells being a major determinant of sperm production capacity in a male. The objectives of these studies were to numerically character…
Sertoli cells nourish developing sperm with the number of Sertoli cells being a major determinant of sperm production capacity in a male. The objectives of these studies were to numerically characterize the prepuberal populations of bovine Sertoli cells to determine the pattern of proliferation and to determine if the prepuberal population could be expanded by reducing endogenous testicular estrogens. Groups of Angus-Hereford crossbred bull calves were castrated at 0.25 mo (n = 6) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 mo of age (n = 8 per age). Testes were weighed and equatorial slices fixed. Sertoli cell density was determined following labeling of Sertoli cells with GATA-4 antibody in 30-μm thick sections. The number of Sertoli cells per testis increased linearly from 0.25 mo to 5 mo of age. Sertoli cell numbers appeared to plateau at 5 mo of age with luminal development present at that age. Only a single postnatal wave of Sertoli cell proliferation was detectable in the bull. To evaluate the regulatory role of testicular estrogens, Jersey bull caves were treated twice weekly with the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, from 2 to 22 wk of age and control animals were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Testes were retrieved at 26 wk of age. Testes were weighed and Sertoli cell density was subsequently determined. Estradiol was lower in testicular tissue from letrozole-treated bulls as expected (P < 0.001). Inhibition of aromatase had no effect on testosterone or circulating LH; testosterone increased with age as expected. Inhibition of aromatase and consequent reduced testicular estradiol did not alter Sertoli cell numbers.