- Long-term aquaria study suggests species-specific responses of two cold-water corals to macro-and microplastics exposure. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 Jul 09; 253:322-329
- Plastic pollution has been identified as a major threat for coastal marine life and ecosystems. Here, we test if the feeding behaviour and growth rate of the two most common cold-water coral species,…
Plastic pollution has been identified as a major threat for coastal marine life and ecosystems. Here, we test if the feeding behaviour and growth rate of the two most common cold-water coral species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, are affected by micro- or macroplastic exposures. Low-density polyethylene microplastics impair prey capture and growth rates of L. pertusa after five months of exposure. Macroplastic films, mimicking plastic bags trapped on deep-sea reefs, had however a limited impact on L. pertusa growth. This was due to an avoidance behaviour illustrated by the formation of skeletal 'caps' that changed the polyp orientation and allowed its access to food supply. On the contrary, M. oculata growth and feeding were not affected by plastic exposure. Such a species-specific response has the potential to induce a severe change in coral community composition and the associated biodiversity in deep-sea environments.
- Smart Spectral Processing of Data for the estimation of Commonly Used Over-the-counter (OTC) Co-formulated drug; Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and Ibuprofen. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 Jun 27; 223:117322
- Oral pharmaceutical preparation containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) and ibuprofen (IBU) is widely prescribed as over- the- counter (OTC) for treatment of common cold-sinus. Development of …
Oral pharmaceutical preparation containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) and ibuprofen (IBU) is widely prescribed as over- the- counter (OTC) for treatment of common cold-sinus. Development of four precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods are established for the concurrent determination of (PSE) and (IBU)in this preparation exploiting zero and/or ratio spectra. Method I is a dual wavelength method (DW). method II is a ratio difference method (RD), method III is a constant multiplication coupled with spectrum subtraction method (CM-SS) and method IV is a constant center coupled with spectrum subtraction method (CC-SS). While, absorbance correction method (AC) is successfully established for the determination of (IBU) only exploiting zero order absorption spectra. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range of 100.0-900.0 μg/mL for (PSE) and 200.0-1000.0 μg/mL for (IBU). No separation steps are required for the spectrophotometric procedures which augments their simplicity. Analyzing synthetic mixtures of the cited drugs evaluated the specificity of the applied methods. Validation of the analysis results have been statistically performed confirming the accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed method through recovery studies which were carried out by following ICH guidelines. Thus, the developed methods can be successfully applied routinely in quality control laboratory.
- SUICIDE BY INHALATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE OF CAR EXHAUSTS FUMES. [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Drug Res Rev 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: While these poisonings are well recognized, and a vast number of publications on CO toxicity exist, both in an environmental and industrial context, suicide is infrequently encountered in forensic practice and the typical signs are rarely seen in literature.
- Molecular mechanisms involved in postharvest chilling tolerance of pomegranate fruit. [Review]
- JSJ Sci Food Agric 2019 Jul 19
- Cold storage of pomegranates is essential for prolonging postharvest storage and for implementation of cold-quarantine insect disinfestation treatments required for international trading. However, po…
Cold storage of pomegranates is essential for prolonging postharvest storage and for implementation of cold-quarantine insect disinfestation treatments required for international trading. However, pomegranates are chilling sensitive; they may develop chilling injuries upon exposure to unfavorable low temperatures. In this mini-review, we summarize molecular data obtained from three different RNA Seq transcriptome analyses of responses of pomegranate fruits to cold storage. These experiments included comparisons among the transcriptomic responses following a 2-week exposure to 1 °C in three different model systems: 1) unconditioned chilling-sensitive fruits versus relatively chilling-tolerant low-temperature-conditioned fruits; 2) chilling-sensitive early-harvested fruits versus relatively chilling-tolerant late-harvested ones; and 3) chilling-sensitive 'Ganesh' variety versus the relatively chilling-tolerant 'Wonderful' variety. Comparisons among differentially expressed transcripts that were exclusively and significantly up-regulated in the relatively chilling-tolerant fruits in all three model systems enabled identification of 573 common chilling tolerance-associated genes in pomegranates. Functional categorization and classification of the differentially expressed transcripts revealed several regulatory, metabolic, and stress-adaptation pathways that were uniquely activated in response to cold storage in relatively chilling-tolerant fruits. More specifically, we identified common up-regulation of transcripts involved in: activation of jasmonic acid and ethylene hormone biosynthesis and signaling; stress-related transcription factors; calcium and MAPK signaling; starch degradation and galactinol and raffinose biosynthesis; phenol biosynthesis; lipid metabolism; and heat-shock proteins. We hypothesized these pathways to be involved in imparting chilling tolerance to pomegranate fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Increased Blood Flow Velocity in Middle Cerebral Artery and Headache Upon Ingestion of Ice Water. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2019; 10:677
- CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a raised MFV upon ingestion of ice water. Volunteers with a provoked case of HICS had a higher MFV than volunteers without HICS. The increase in MFV was even higher when the headache was accompanied by lacrimation. This may indicate an involvement of the trigeminal-parasympathetic vasodilator reflex.
- Thermal acclimation and seasonal acclimatization: a comparative study of cardiac response to prolonged temperature change in shorthorn sculpin. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Biol 2019 Jul 17
- Seasonal thermal remodelling (acclimatization) and laboratory thermal remodelling (acclimation) can induce different physiological changes in ectothermic animals. As global temperatures are changing …
Seasonal thermal remodelling (acclimatization) and laboratory thermal remodelling (acclimation) can induce different physiological changes in ectothermic animals. As global temperatures are changing at an increasing rate, there is urgency to understand the compensatory abilities of key organs like the heart to adjust under natural conditions. Thus, the aim of the present study was to directly compare the acclimatization and acclimatory response within a single eurythermal fish species, the European shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpio L.). We used current- and voltage-clamp to measure ionic current densities in both isolated atrial and ventricular myocytes at a common temperature of 7.5°C from three groups of fish: 1) summer-acclimated (SumAcl, 12°C); 2) cold-acclimated (ColdAcl, 3°C); and 3) winter-acclimatized fish (WinAcz, 3°C). At the common test temperature of 7.5°C, action potential (AP) was shortened by both WinAcz and ColdAcl, compared with SumAcl, however, WinAcz caused a greater shortening than did ColdAcl. Shortening of AP was achieved mostly by a significant increase in repolarizing current density (IKr and IK1) following WinAcz, with ColdAcl having only minor effects. Compared with SumAcl, the depolarizing L-type calcium current (ICa) was larger following WinAcz, but again there was no effect of ColdAcl on ICa Interestingly, the other depolarizing current, INa was downregulated at low temperatures. Our analysis further shows that ionic current remodelling is primarily due to changes ion channel density rather than currents kinetics. In summary, acclimatization profoundly modified the electrical activity of the sculpin heart while acclimation to the same temperature for >1.5 month produced very limited remodelling effects.
- Hormones, Metabolism and the Benefits of Exercise: Human Brown Adipose Tissue Plasticity: Hormonal and Environmental Manipulation [BOOK]
- BOOKSpringer: Chamcham
- Brown adipose tissue (BAT), brown-in-white (“brite”) and “beige” adipocytes share the unique ability of converting chemical energy into heat and play a critical role in the adaptive thermogenesis res…
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), brown-in-white (“brite”) and “beige” adipocytes share the unique ability of converting chemical energy into heat and play a critical role in the adaptive thermogenesis response promoting nonshivering thermogenesis. Uncoupling Protein-1 (UCP1), which allows the uncoupling of substrate oxidation from phosphorylation of ADP, represents the molecular signature of BAT and beige adipocytes. Until recently, the physiologic role of BAT and beige adipocytes depots was thought to be limited to small mammalians and newborns. The discovery of BAT in adult humans and the demonstration of the presence of inducible BAT activity in white adipose tissue by beige adipocytes have generated enthusiasm as potential targets for treatment of obesity and other disorders due to sustained positive energy balance. These findings are particularly important since in vitro studies have demonstrated that preadipocytes can be directed toward a common brown phenotype by multiple pathways that, in turn, may be exploited for therapeutic interventions. In adult humans, BAT activity is more evident in deep neck fat depots and, to a lesser degree, in subcutaneous adipose tissue, with a transcriptome signature resembling the rodent beige fat. This observation supports the hypothesis that human BAT activity and capacity can be modulated. To this end, we have directed our translational research program toward the characterization of beige fat in humans and on the effects of hormonal and environmental drivers in the adaptive thermogenesis response. Mild cold exposure, within the temperature range commonly employed in climate-controlled buildings, is sufficient to generate a significant increase in non-shivering thermogenesis driven by BAT and beige adipocyte activation. In turn, adaptive thermogenesis generates a specific hormonal signature and promotes glucose disposal. Chronic exposure to mild cold induces expansion of BAT mass and activity, whereas exposure to warm climate abrogates them. Additionally, the metabolic effects of BAT mass expansion are evident only upon stimulation of BAT activity, indicating that both expansion and activation of BAT are necessary and complementary strategies to pursue. From an experimental standpoint, human preadipocytes represent a viable experimental platform to mechanistically interrogate different pathways that are able to expand and activate browning. Our laboratory has focused on studying FGF-21, and FNDC5/irisin in their capacity to promote the browning process. Compared to a white differentiation medium, the addition of either FGF-21 or FNDC5 results in a reprogramming toward a brown phenotype, as indicated by the display of brown transcriptome signature and, functionally, by the increase in oxygen consumption following catecholamine treatment, indicating an increase in substrate utilization. Collectively, the integration of a detailed assessment of human physiology with mechanistic observations in cell culture systems can provide a unique opportunity to translate observations from experimental models to actionable therapeutic targets.
- Histopathological changes induced by the digenean intestinal parasite Masenia nkomatiensis Dumbo, Dos Santos, & Avenant-Oldewage, 2019 of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) from Incomati Basin, Mozambique. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Fish Dis 2019 Jul 15
- The intestines of 154 Clarias gariepinus were examined of which 29 were naturally infected with Masenia nkomatiensis, and of these, seven (intensity ranging from 8 to 231) were examined for pathology…
The intestines of 154 Clarias gariepinus were examined of which 29 were naturally infected with Masenia nkomatiensis, and of these, seven (intensity ranging from 8 to 231) were examined for pathology. Destruction of the epithelium covering the villi, detachment of epithelial cells and parts of villi were observed. Excessive mucus secretion occurred in the vicinity of the worm and catarrh was observed, indicative of an inflammatory response. The number of mucous and mast cells was higher at the attachment site than at an area 5,000 µm away and in uninfected individuals, suggesting that the parasite triggered a localized innate immune response. The number of neutrophils, basophils and lymphocytes in infected tissue was not significantly different from uninfected tissue confirming that no acquired immune response was produced against the maseniid. The caecae in the anterior part of the parasites' intestine consisted of convoluted epithelium forming invaginations or "crypts." Contraction of the thick layer of circular muscle fibres of the caeca facilitates the movement of digested material. Observation of digested host cells and cell debris within the caecae provides further evidence that M. nkomatiensis is consuming host cells.
- Rational treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy with capsaicin 8% patch: from pain relief towards disease modification. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pain Res 2019; 12:2039-2052
- CONCLUSIONS: Capsaicin 8% patch provides significant pain relief in CIPN, and may lead to regeneration and restoration of sensory nerve fibers ie, disease modification.
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- Plant Inflorescence Architecture: The Formation, Activity, and Fate of Axillary Meristems. [Journal Article]
- CSCold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2019 Jul 15
- The above-ground plant body in different plant species can have very distinct forms or architectures that arise by recurrent redeployment of a finite set of building blocks-leaves with axillary meris…
The above-ground plant body in different plant species can have very distinct forms or architectures that arise by recurrent redeployment of a finite set of building blocks-leaves with axillary meristems, stems or branches, and flowers. The unique architectures of plant inflorescences in different plant families and species, on which this review focuses, determine the reproductive success and yield of wild and cultivated plants. Major contributors to the inflorescence architecture are the activity and developmental trajectories adopted by axillary meristems, which determine the degree of branching and the number of flowers formed. Recent advances in genetic and molecular analyses in diverse flowering plants have uncovered both common regulatory principles and unique players and/or regulatory interactions that underlie inflorescence architecture. Modulating activity of these regulators has already led to yield increases in the field. Additional insight into the underlying regulatory interactions and principles will not only uncover how their rewiring resulted in altered plant form, but will also enhance efforts at optimizing plant architecture in desirable ways in crop species.