- Virtual screening of inhibitors against Envelope glycoprotein of Chikungunya Virus: a drug repositioning approach. [Journal Article]Bioinformation 2019; 15(6):439-447B
- Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) a re-emerging mosquito-borne alpha virus causes significant distress which is further accentuated in the lack of specific therapeutics or a preventive vaccine, mandating accelerated research for anti-CHIKV therapeutics. In recent years, drug repositioning has gained recognition for the curative interventions for its cost and time efficacy. CHIKV envelope proteins are con…
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) a re-emerging mosquito-borne alpha virus causes significant distress which is further accentuated in the lack of specific therapeutics or a preventive vaccine, mandating accelerated research for anti-CHIKV therapeutics. In recent years, drug repositioning has gained recognition for the curative interventions for its cost and time efficacy. CHIKV envelope proteins are considered to be the promising targets for drug discovery because of their essential role in viral attachment and entry in the host cells. In the current study, we propose structure-based virtual screening of drug molecule on the crystal structure of mature Chikungunya envelope protein (PDB 3N41) using a library of FDA approved drug molecules. Several cephalosporin drugs docked successfully within two binding sites prepared at E1-E2 interface of CHIKV envelop protein complex with significantly low binding energies. Cefmenoxime, ceforanide, cefotetan, cefonicid sodium and cefpiramide were identified as top leads with a cumulative score of -67.67, -64.90, -63.78, -61.99, and - 61.77, forming electrostatic, hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds within both the binding sites. These shortlisted leads could be potential inhibitors of E1-E2 hetero dimer in CHIKV, hence might disrupt the integrity of envelope glycoprotein leading to loss of its ability to form mature viral particles and gain entry into the host.
- Opioid analgesics are the leading cause of adverse drug reactions in the obstetric population in South Korea. [Journal Article]Medicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98(21):e15756M
- Medication use during pregnancy is gradually increasing; however, the safety of this practice remains largely unknown.We investigated medications with the most adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among pregnant women and the clinical features of those medications.Reports of ADRs among pregnant women were extracted from the Korea Adverse Events Reporting System (January 2012-December 2015). We analyzed …
Medication use during pregnancy is gradually increasing; however, the safety of this practice remains largely unknown.We investigated medications with the most adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among pregnant women and the clinical features of those medications.Reports of ADRs among pregnant women were extracted from the Korea Adverse Events Reporting System (January 2012-December 2015). We analyzed the data of drugs frequently reported to cause ADRs and their clinical features among 3 age groups.A total of 5642 ADRs among 3428 patients were analyzed. The number of ADR reports increased annually. The most common drug categories causing ADRs were analgesics, followed by gynecologic, uterotocolytic, anti-infective, antidiabetic, analgesic, and antihypertensive drugs. Analgesics comprised 6 opioids (morphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, oxycodone, tramadol, pethidine) and an anti-pyretics (nefopam and ketorolac). As an individual drug, ritodrine (24.4%) was the most frequently reported, followed by morphine, 5-HT3 serotonin antagonist, nefopam, fentanyl, magnesium sulfate, insulin lispro, cefazedone, sodium chloride, hydromorphone, oxycodone, cefotetan, nifedipine, human insulin, tramadol, ketorolac, pethidine, methylergometrine, metoclopramide, and misoprostol (in that order). ADRs most frequently occurred in women aged 25 to 34 years, and the trend of ADR with the 20 most commonly reported medications significantly differed among the age groups (P = .011). In addition, the kind of common causative drugs was different among the age groups.Knowledge of medications and clinical conditions resulting in the highest ADR rates among pregnant women is necessary for medical practitioners to administer proper care.
- Antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for mortality of pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae among diabetics: a retrospective study conducted in Shanghai, China. [Journal Article]Infect Drug Resist 2019; 12:1089-1098ID
- CONCLUSIONS: In KP pneumonia, diabetics showed lower antimicrobial resistance and different independent risk factors for mortality compared with nondiabetics, in line with previous studies. Importantly, further attention should be paid on rational and effective antibiotic and supportive treatments in order to reduce mortality without aggravating antimicrobial resistance and metabolic damage among diabetics.
- Clinical Situations of Bacteriology and Prognosis in Patients with Urosepsis. [Journal Article]Biomed Res Int 2019; 2019:3080827BR
- Urosepsis and septic shock are a critical situation leading to a mortality rate up to 30% in patients with obstructive diseases of the urinary tract.
Urosepsis and septic shock are a critical situation leading to a mortality rate up to 30% in patients with obstructive diseases of the urinary tract.
- Cefazolin as surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in hysterectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Journal Article]Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2019; 40(2):142-149IC
- CONCLUSIONS: Due to inherent limitations associated with old RCTs with limited relevance to contemporary surgery, an RCT of cefazolin versus regimens with significant antianaerobic spectrum is needed to establish the optimal choice for SSI prevention in hysterectomy.
- Impact of a change in duration of prophylactic antibiotics on infectious complications after radical cystectomy with a neobladder. [Journal Article]Medicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(47):e13196M
- A profound number of prophylactic antibiotics are used after radical cystectomy with an ileal orthotopic neobladder (RCIONB) despite a negative effect of infection control. We investigated the impact of short-term prophylactic antibiotic use on infectious complications after RCIONB.We retrospectively reviewed data from 287 patients who underwent RCIONB for bladder cancer between 2012 and 2016 at …
A profound number of prophylactic antibiotics are used after radical cystectomy with an ileal orthotopic neobladder (RCIONB) despite a negative effect of infection control. We investigated the impact of short-term prophylactic antibiotic use on infectious complications after RCIONB.We retrospectively reviewed data from 287 patients who underwent RCIONB for bladder cancer between 2012 and 2016 at a tertiary hospital. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the pattern of prophylactic antibiotics (185 patients in a long-term group, 25-day use of 3-staged multiple antibiotics versus 102 patients in a short-term group, 24-hour use of cefotetan). The onset of complications, including bacteriuria, febrile urinary tract infection (FU), and bacteremia, and the microorganisms responsible for infections were compared between the groups. Of all 287 patients, bacteriuria, FU, and bacteremia were identified in 177 (61.7%), 85 (29.6%), and 18 (6.3%) patients, respectively. Bacteriuria was identified more frequently in the short-term group (49.2% vs 84.3%, P <.001). However, the rates of FU within 60 days of surgery were similar in both groups (28.6% vs 28.4%, P = .969). The rate of FU was not significantly different between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in the rate of patients with bacteremia (5.4% vs 7.8%, P = .415). The most frequent microorganisms seen in bacteriuria were Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, in the long-term and short-term group, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus species were more frequently present in the long-term group.Short-term use of prophylactic antibiotics is effective for preventing urinary tract infections after RCIONB and decreasing colonization with multi-drug-resistant organisms.
- Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Anaerobic Bacterial Clinical Isolates From 2014 to 2016, Including Recently Named or Renamed Species. [Journal Article]Ann Lab Med 2019; 39(2):190-199AL
- CONCLUSIONS: Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, and carbapenems are highly active β-lactam agents against most anaerobes, including recently named or renamed species.
- Maternal anaphylactic shock in pregnancy: A case report. [Case Reports]Medicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(37):e12351M
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of anaphylaxis following cefotetan administration in pregnancy. Cefotetan, a second-generation cephalosporin, is a commonly prescribed antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. The case demonstrated life-threatening anaphylactic reaction during pregnancy. Even a skin test using antibiotics alone triggered anaphylaxis.
- Cefotetan-Induced Hemolytic Anemia: Case Series and Review. [Journal Article]J Pharm Pract 2018; :897190018798198JP
- CONCLUSIONS: Five cases of cefotetan-induced hemolytic anemia, which presented over the period of a single year at our center, are described. In each case, hemolytic anemia was confirmed by testing for the presence of anti-cefotetan antibodies. Each case occurred approximately 1 to 2 weeks following exposure to the drug. All five patients survived. A brief review of drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is also discussed.DIIHA may be difficult to distinguish from other causes of hemolytic anemia, but should be included in the differential in patients exposed to medications associated with DIIHA. Once suspected, antibody testing should be performed, and once diagnosed, further exposure should be avoided.
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- Distribution of Microbes and Drug Susceptibility in Patients with Diabetic Foot Infections in Southwest China. [Journal Article]J Diabetes Res 2018; 2018:9817308JD
- CONCLUSIONS: The distribution and types of bacteria in diabetic foot infection (DFI) patients varied with the different Wagner classification grades, courses of the ulcers, and antibiotic therapy. Multidrug resistance were increased, and the clinical treatment of DFIs should select the most suitable antibiotics based on the pathogen culture and drug susceptibility test results.