- Enterobius vermicularis infection: prevalence and risk factors among preschool children in kindergarten in the capital area, Republic of the Marshall Islands. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2019 Jun 18; 19(1):536
- CONCLUSIONS: Mass screening and treatment of infected PSC are important measures in pinworm control in the RMI.
- The α-1,6-mannosyltransferase VdOCH1 plays a major role in microsclerotium formation and virulence in the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae. [Journal Article]
- FBFungal Biol 2019; 123(7):539-546
- Sunflower yellow wilt is a widespread and destructive disease caused by the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). To better understand the pathogenesis mechanism of V. dahliae in sun…
Sunflower yellow wilt is a widespread and destructive disease caused by the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). To better understand the pathogenesis mechanism of V. dahliae in sunflower, T-DNA insertion library was generated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system (ATMT). Eight hundred positive transformants were obtained. Transformants varied in colony morphology, growth rate, conidia production and pathogenicity in sunflower compared to the wild type strain. A mutant, named VdGn3-L2, was chosen for further analysis based on its deprivation on microsclerotia formation. The flanking sequence of T-DNA insertion site of VdGn3-L2 was identified via hiTAIL-PCR, and the interrupted gene encoded an initiation-specific α-1, 6-mannosyltransferase, named as VdOCH1. The deletion mutant ΔVdOCH1 was impaired in certain characteristics such as fungal growth, conidia production, and microsclerotia formation. Also, ΔVdOCH1 mutants were more sensitive to the cell wall perturbing reagents, such as SDS and Congo red, lost their penetration ability through cellophane membrane, and exhibited dramatically decreased pathogenicity to sunflower. The impaired phenotypes could be restored to the wild type level by complementation of the deletion mutant with full-length VdOCH1 gene. In conclusion, VdOCH1, encoded α-1,6-mannosyltransferase, manipulating the biological characteristics, microsclerotia formation and pathogenic ability of V. dahliae in sunflower.
- Changes to the littered cigarette pack environment in New York City between 2011 and 2015. [Journal Article]
- TCTob Control 2019 May 30
- CONCLUSIONS: While the trafficking rate among domestically sourced cigarettes increased between 2011 and 2015 (before and after the STE minimum price floor on cigarette packs was in place), there was a decline in total consumption of domestically trafficked cigarettes due to a significant increase in consumption of foreign-sourced cigarettes. Jurisdictions considering price measures should bolster monitoring and enforcement efforts to maximise public health impact. Given the interstate nature of cigarette trafficking in the USA, Federal intervention would be optimal.
- Microplastic ingestion in deep-sea fish from the South China Sea. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Aug 10; 677:493-501
- Monitoring the ingestion of microplastics by fish in the environment is crucial to understanding the risks posed by microplastics in the marine ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the ingestion…
Monitoring the ingestion of microplastics by fish in the environment is crucial to understanding the risks posed by microplastics in the marine ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the ingestion of microplastics in deep-sea fish from the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. All fish samples were contaminated by microplastics, reflecting a high level of microplastic pollution in this region. The average abundance of microplastics in the stomachs of sampled fish was 1.96 ± 1.12 items/individual and 1.53 ± 1.08 items/g, and levels in the intestines of sampled fish were 1.77 ± 0.73 items/individual and 4.82 ± 4.74 items/g. Fish were collected from depths of 200 to 209 m and 453 to 478 m, and no significant difference in the quantity of microplastics ingested was detected among different depths in this range. The microplastics ingested by fish were dominated by plastics that were <1 mm in size, film-like in shape, transparent in color and composed of cellophane. Our results suggest that the ingestion of microplastics by fish is closely related with the microplastic pollution in the marine environment.
- H3K4 trimethylation by CclA regulates pathogenicity and the production of three families of terpenoid secondary metabolites in Colletotrichum higginsianum. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Plant Pathol 2019; 20(6):831-842
- The role of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation is poorly understood in plant pathogenic fungi. Here, we analysed the function of CclA, a subunit of the COMPASS complex mediating H3K4 methylation, …
The role of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation is poorly understood in plant pathogenic fungi. Here, we analysed the function of CclA, a subunit of the COMPASS complex mediating H3K4 methylation, in the brassica anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. We show that CclA is required for full genome-wide H3K4 trimethylation. The deletion of cclA strongly reduced mycelial growth, asexual sporulation and spore germination but did not impair the morphogenesis of specialized infection structures (appressoria and biotrophic hyphae). Virulence of the ΔcclA mutant on plants was strongly attenuated, associated with a marked reduction in appressorial penetration ability on both plants and inert cellophane membranes. The secondary metabolite profile of the ΔcclA mutant was greatly enriched compared to that of the wild type, with three different families of terpenoid compounds being overproduced by the mutant, namely the colletochlorins, higginsianins and sclerosporide. These included five novel molecules that were produced exclusively by the ΔcclA mutant: colletorin D, colletorin D acid, higginsianin C, 13-epi-higginsianin C and sclerosporide. Taken together, our findings indicate that H3K4 trimethylation plays a critical role in regulating fungal growth, development, pathogenicity and secondary metabolism in C. higginsianum.
- In vitro Interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa With Scedosporium Species Frequently Associated With Cystic Fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2019; 10:441
- Members of the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex are the second most frequently isolated pathogens after Aspergillus fumigatus from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with fungal pulmonary infectio…
Members of the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex are the second most frequently isolated pathogens after Aspergillus fumigatus from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with fungal pulmonary infections. Even so, the main risk factors for the infection are unrevealed. According to previous studies, bacterial infections might reduce the risk of a fungal infection, but an antibacterial therapy may contribute to the airway colonization by several fungal pathogens. Furthermore, corticosteroids, which are often used to reduce lung inflammation in children and adults with CF, are also proved to enhance the growth of A. fumigatus in vitro. Considering all the above discussed points, we aimed to test how Pseudomonas aeruginosa influences the growth of scedosporia and to investigate the potential effect of commonly applied antibacterial agents and corticosteroids on Scedosporium species. Direct interactions between fungal and bacterial strains were tested using the disk inhibition method. Indirect interactions via volatile compounds were investigated by the plate-in-plate method, while the effect of bacterial media-soluble molecules was tested using a modified cellophane assay and also in liquid culture media conditioned by P. aeruginosa. To test the effect of bacterial signal molecules, antibacterial agents and corticosteroids on the fungal growth, the broth microdilution method was used. We also investigated the germination ability of Scedosporium conidia in the presence of pyocyanin and diffusible signal factor by microscopy. According to our results, P. aeruginosa either inhibited or enhanced the growth of scedosporia depending on the culture conditions and the mode of interactions. When the two pathogens were cultured physically separately from each other in the plate-in-plate tests, the presence of the bacteria was able to stimulate the growth of several fungal isolates. While in direct physical contact, bacterial strains inhibited the fungal growth. This effect might be attributed to bacterial signal molecules, which also proved to inhibit the germination and growth of scedosporia. In addition, antibacterial agents showed growth-promoting, while corticosteroids exhibited growth inhibitory effect on several Scedosporium isolates. These data raise the possibility that a P. aeruginosa infection or a previously administered antibacterial therapy might be able to increase the chance of a Scedosporium colonization in a CF lung.
- Microplastic in cultured oysters from different coastal areas of China. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Feb 25; 653:1282-1292
- Microplastics are an emerging concern in the marine environment due to their small size; they can be ingested by aquatic organisms, especially filter-feeding organisms, such as oysters. The presence …
Microplastics are an emerging concern in the marine environment due to their small size; they can be ingested by aquatic organisms, especially filter-feeding organisms, such as oysters. The presence of microplastics in seafood may pose a threat to food safety, and there is an urgent need to evaluate the potential risks of microplastics to human health. This study quantified the microplastics in oysters from 17 sites along the coastline of China. Qualitative attributes, such as shape and size, were also determined under a microscope. Additionally, the polymer types were identified using Fourier-Transform Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy (μ-FT-IR). The results showed that the average abundance of microplastics in oyster was 0.62 items/g (wet weight) or 2.93 items/individual. Additionally, 84% of the sampled oysters had inhaled microplastics, indicating the high prevalence of microplastic pollution in different coastal areas of China. Fibers were the most common shape (60.67%), and the most common size was <1500 μm, accounting for 81.89% of the total microplastics. The μ-FT-IR analysis identified eight different polymers, and the main polymeric types of microplastics were cellophane (CP), polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Our results suggest the widespread prevalence of microplastics in cultured oysters from different coastal areas of China with similar or lower abundances than other countries. In addition, our results exhibited regional characteristics of high microplastics abundance in southern coastal area of China and low microplastics abundance in northern China. Further investigations are warranted to examine microplastics contamination in other seafood species from different geographical sites in coastal area of China.
- A comparative evaluation between cheiloscopic patterns and canine relationship in primary dentition. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Forensic Dent Sci 2018 May-Aug; 10(2):84-87
- CONCLUSIONS: Lip prints can provide an alternative to dermatoglyphics to predict the canine relationship in primary dentition. Further studies with larger sample size are required to provide an insight into its significant correlations.
- Microplastic ingestion by the farmed sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in China. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019; 245:1071-1078
- Microplastic ingestion by the farmed sea cucumber is undocumented. Microplastics were isolated from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus that was collected from eight farms along the Bohai Sea and…
Microplastic ingestion by the farmed sea cucumber is undocumented. Microplastics were isolated from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus that was collected from eight farms along the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea in China. To examine microplastic ingestion, the intestines were isolated, digested and then subjected to the floatation test. The microplastic abundance in the sediment ranged from 20 to 1040 particles kg-1 of dry sediment, while the ingested microplastics ranged from 0 to 30 particles intestine-1. After filtering the coelomic fluid, the extracted microplastics from the coelomic fluid ranged from 0 to 19 particles animal-1. Thus, we speculated that microplastics may transfer to the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber. The ingested microplastics did not correlate with the animal body weight but was site dependent, suggesting that sea cucumber may serve as sentinel for microplastic pollution monitoring in the sediment. The microplastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared micro spectroscopy, and the polymer types were mainly cellophane, polyester, and polyethylene terephthalate. This study revealed that, microplastics widely existed in sea cucumber farms, and that sea cucumbers ingest microplastics as suitable with their mouth open. Moreover, the microplastics might transfer to the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumber. Further investigations are needed to assess the chronic effect of the microplastics on the growth and physiological status of the sea cucumber.
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- Microplastic abundance, distribution and composition in the Pearl River along Guangzhou city and Pearl River estuary, China. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019; 217:879-886
- Like many urban rivers, the Pearl River in China is contaminated with microplastics. Compared with marine environments, microplastic pollution in freshwater is less understood, especially in urban ri…
Like many urban rivers, the Pearl River in China is contaminated with microplastics. Compared with marine environments, microplastic pollution in freshwater is less understood, especially in urban rivers. In the present study, the abundance and distribution of microplastics in water from the Pearl River was investigated, including the estuary and the urban section along Guangzhou. The average abundance of microplastics was 19,860 items/m3 and 8902 items/m3 in the urban section and estuary, respectively. Wastewater effluents from cities might be a main source of microplastics in the Pearl River, and the urban tributaries might act as retention systems for microplastics. Among these microplastics, over 80% of them were less than 0.5 mm. The main shapes of microplastics were film, fragment, and fiber, mostly blue or transparent. Moreover, the most common polymer types of these microplastics were polyamide (26.2%) and cellophane (23.1%). This study reveals the contamination and characteristics of microplastics in the Pearl River, and provides important data for further research on microplastics in freshwater ecosystems.