- Compartmentalisation of the inflammatory response following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- CCytokine 2019 Jul 16; 123:154778
- CONCLUSIONS: The post aSAH inflammatory response peaks on days 5-7 post ictus and remains largely compartmentalised within the CNS. IL-4 may have a particular association with DIND although its precise role in the pathophysiology of the disorder remains unclear. IL-6 predicted poor outcome but not independently of clinical grade, suggesting that it may be a surrogate marker of early brain injury.
- Reversible, position-dependent midbrain compression in a patient with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates the importance of considering intracranial hypotension in cases of positional herniation syndrome and the necessity for early and aggressive attempts at identifying and treating the underlying cause to prevent unnecessary neurological dysfunction and protracted medical care.
- Assessment of Diagnostic Yield of Nonculture Infection Testing on Cerebrospinal Fluid in Immune-Competent Children. [Journal Article]
- JNJAMA Netw Open 2019 Jul 03; 2(7):e197307
- CONCLUSIONS: Nonculture CSF infection testing appeared to be common in immune-competent children with normal CSF cell counts, but positive results were uncommon and were not independently associated with clinical care; delaying the decision to send nonculture infection tests until CSF cell counts are available could reduce unnecessary diagnostic testing and medical costs, which may improve value-based care.
- What Have We Learned from Cerebrospinal Fluid Studies about Biomarkers for Detecting LRRK2 Parkinson's Disease Patients and Healthy Subjects with Parkinson's-Associated LRRK2 Mutations? [Journal Article]
- JPJ Parkinsons Dis 2019 Jul 12
- CONCLUSIONS: The low numbers of investigations of each analyte, small sample sizes, and methodological differences limit conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. Further investigations are indicated to determine the validity of the analytes identified in these studies as possible biomarkers for LRRK2 PD patients and/or LRRK2 CTL subjects.
- Protective effect of ISO‑1 against advanced glycation end product aggravation of PC12 cell injury induced by Aβ1‑40. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2019 Jul 09
- Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important pathogenic substances involved in diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. AGEs also serve important roles in promoting the development of Al…
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important pathogenic substances involved in diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. AGEs also serve important roles in promoting the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory stimulant and a pathogenic factor involved in DM, was previously reported to be present at increased levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment compared with age‑matched healthy controls. By investigating the association between AGEs and MIF, and the effects of neuroinflammation on AD, the present study aimed to increase understanding of the specific molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of DM and AD, and the connection between these diseases. PC12 cells were cultured in vitro; the levels of MIF mRNA and protein were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative (RT‑q)PCR and western blot analyses. The optimal concentrations of AGEs and amyloid β 1‑40 (Aβ1‑40) were also determined in the cell model of AD using Cell Counting Kit‑8 and MTT assays. Cell numbers and morphological changes were observed following the treatment of Aβ1‑40‑stimulated PC12 cells with AGEs and the MIF inhibitor (S,R)‑3‑(4‑hydroxyphenyl)‑4,5‑dihydro‑5‑isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO‑1). The mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) and MIF were determined via RT‑qPCR analysis. The results showed that the levels of MIF mRNA and protein were significantly increased in cells treated with AGEs compared with the control group. In the AD model group, the inhibition of PC12 cell growth was significantly increased, and the mRNA expression levels of IL‑1β, IL‑6, TNF‑α and MIF were also increased. Compared with treatment with AGEs alone, the combination of AGEs treatment with ISO‑1 significantly improved the survival rate and resulted in the reduced expression of inflammatory mediators in the AD cell model. Thus, ISO‑1 reduced AGEs‑mediated damage in the AD cell model. This may be a consequence of AGEs‑mediated MIF expression promoting neuritis in the AD cell model, whereas ISO‑1 decreased the expression of neuroinflammatory mediators.
- New insights of the fever following subarachnoid hemorrhage and introducing a new thermoregulator like structure in choroid plexuses; preliminary study. [Journal Article]
- ANActa Neurol Taiwan 2019 Mar 15; 28(1):1-11
- CONCLUSIONS: We introduce a thermo regulator like structure, describe a new syndrome. In addition, it was noted thatwater-filled vesicles of CP are increased, brain temperature in nearly normal in the early phase of SAH due to likely irritation of vagal nerves. However in the late phase, mean number of water-filled vesicles numbers decreased in accordance with increased brain temperature with degenerative changes of the nodose ganglion.
- Novel Biochemical Insights in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurosyphilis Based on a Metabonomics Study. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Neurosci 2019 Jul 18
- Neurosyphilis is a chronic central nervous system infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Our aim was to study the metabolic profiling in the cerebrospinal fluid of neurosyphilis patients an…
Neurosyphilis is a chronic central nervous system infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Our aim was to study the metabolic profiling in the cerebrospinal fluid of neurosyphilis patients and identify specific potential biomarkers. Fifteen cerebrospinal fluid samples from neurosyphilis patients and 14 non-neurosyphilis samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS). The LC-MS data were preprocessed by supervised pattern recognition to obtain diagnostic models. Both orthogonal projections to a latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and a t test were used to obtain specific metabolites for neurosyphilis. LC-MS data showed that the metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from neurosyphilis are different from the non-neurosyphilis group. The OPLS-DA model parameters R2Y and Q2Y are both more than 0.7 and indicated a satisfactory diagnostic performance. Bilirubin, L-histidine, prostaglandin E2, alpha-kamlolenic acid, and butyryl-L-carnitine and palmitoyl-L-carnitine were identified as novel potential biomarkers for neurosyphilis. The metabolic study of CSF may provide a new way to explore the pathogenesis of neurosyphilis.
- Clinical characteristic of 15 cases of cryptococcal meningitis treated with Ommaya reservoir. [Journal Article]
- ANActa Neurol Belg 2019 Jul 18
- Cryptococcal meningitis is a severe subacute fungal meningoencephalitis. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of antifungal medication and aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through Ommaya re…
Cryptococcal meningitis is a severe subacute fungal meningoencephalitis. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of antifungal medication and aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through Ommaya reservoir were reported to be useful cryptococcal meningitis treatment method. We want to evaluate the role of Ommaya reservoir in the treatment of refractory cryptococcal meningitis. We retrospectively analyzed clinical records and data of 15 refractory cryptococcal meningitis patients who were treated with Ommaya reservoir in Sir Run Run Shaw hospital from June 2013 to June 2017. Fifteen patients who underwent Ommaya reservoir implanted surgery include eight women and seven men. Headache and fever were the common clinical symptoms. Underlying diseases mainly include diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Three patients occurred renal dysfunction and four patients experienced liver damage. Thirteen patients recovered completely, whereas two patients died. Implant Ommaya reservoir which can serial extract CSF and ICV injection of Amphotericin B is a valuable approach in the treatment of Cryptococcal meningitis, especially for patients with refractory intracranial hypertension.
- Management of Subdural Hematohygromas in Abusive Head Trauma. [Journal Article]
- NNeurosurgery 2019 Apr 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experience to date, burr hole with controlled external subdural drainage is an effective and preferred treatment for traumatic hematohygromas; complications and need for additional intervention is low.
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- Targeted Transforaminal Epidural Blood Patch for Postdural Puncture Headache in Patients with Postlaminectomy Syndrome. [Case Reports]
- CRCase Rep Neurol Med 2019; 2019:1968314
- Postdural puncture headache is a leak of cerebrospinal fluid that lowers intracranial pressure and usually presents as a positional headache. If conservative treatments are not successful, the epidur…
Postdural puncture headache is a leak of cerebrospinal fluid that lowers intracranial pressure and usually presents as a positional headache. If conservative treatments are not successful, the epidural blood patch is the gold standard of the treatment for dural puncture. The interlaminar approach is the most commonly used technique for an epidural blood patch. This case report describes a patient who was treated with a transforaminal epidural blood patch for postdural puncture headache following an acupuncture procedure on his lower back after two epidural blood patches using an interlaminar approach had failed. The patient underwent an acupuncture therapy for management of chronic low back pain due to postlaminectomy syndrome. After the procedure, the patient had a severe headache and the conservative treatment was not effective. The two interlaminar epidural blood patches at the L2-3 level and at the L3-4 level were failed. We performed transforaminal epidural blood patch at the L3-4 and L4-5 levels on the left side, the site of leakage in the MRI myelogram. His symptoms finally subsided without complication. This case demonstrates that targeted transforaminal epidural blood patch is a therapeutic option for the treatment of postdural puncture headache when epidural blood patch using an interlaminar approach is ineffective.