- Gaze direction affects walking speed when using a self-paced treadmill with a virtual reality environment. [Journal Article]
- HMHum Mov Sci 2019 Jul 19; 67:102498
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to a further understanding of the differences between walking in a real life environment or computer assisted rehabilitation environment. When analyzing gait on a self-paced treadmill in the future, one must be attentive where to place a visual stimulus in the VR environment.
- Validation of the French Version of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale (IPOS). [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pain Symptom Manage 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: IPOS-Fr has fair to good validity, especially with regard to inter-rater agreement and construct validity, is sensitive to positive change, and has good interpretability and acceptability for patients and staff. IPOS-Fr is not optimal in terms of internal consistency and structure when using subscale scores, except for the emotional subscale.
- Leadership in Dental Education. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dent 2019 Jul 19
- Dental school education continues to evolve at a significant pace. The challenge for those in leadership positions in dental education is to deliver a curriculum which is contemporary, evidence-based…
Dental school education continues to evolve at a significant pace. The challenge for those in leadership positions in dental education is to deliver a curriculum which is contemporary, evidence-based, and at the same time meeting the expectations of regulators and the established dental workforce - the latter being professional colleagues, including employers of future graduates. An important change in recent years is the acceptance that dental education itself is no longer a 'start-stop process', beginning at entry to dental school and concluding at graduation. Rather, dental education should be viewed as a continuous and life-long continuum. Perhaps one of the greatest attributes we can develop in our students is the desire and ability to seek to update, refresh and develop their knowledge and skills in the ever-advancing world of dental practice.
- Environmental degradation amplifies species' responses to temperature variation in a trophic interaction. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Ecol 2019 Jul 22
- 1.Land-use and climate change are two of the primary drivers of the current biodiversity crisis. However, we lack understanding of how single-species and multi-species associations are affected by in…
1.Land-use and climate change are two of the primary drivers of the current biodiversity crisis. However, we lack understanding of how single-species and multi-species associations are affected by interactions between multiple environmental stressors. 2. We address this gap by examining how environmental degradation interacts with daily stochastic temperature variation to affect individual life history and population dynamics in a host-parasitoid trophic interaction, using the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, and its parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens. 3. We carried out a single generation individual life history experiment and a multi-generation microcosm experiment during which individuals and microcosms were maintained at a mean temperature of 26 °C that was either kept constant or varied stochastically, at four levels of host resource degradation, in the presence or absence of parasitoids. 4. At the individual level, resource degradation increased juvenile development time and decreased adult body size in both species. Parasitoids were more sensitive to temperature variation than their hosts, with a shorter juvenile stage duration than in constant temperatures and a longer adult lifespan in moderately degraded environments. Resource degradation also altered the host's response to temperature variation, leading to a longer juvenile development time at high resource degradation. At the population level, moderate resource degradation amplified the effects of temperature variation on host and parasitoid populations compared to no or high resource degradation and parasitoid overall abundance was lower in fluctuating temperatures. Top-down regulation by the parasitoid and bottom-up regulation driven by resource degradation contributed to more than 50% of host and parasitoid population responses to temperature variation. 5. Our results demonstrate that environmental degradation can strongly affect how species in a trophic interaction respond to short-term temperature fluctuations through direct and indirect trait-mediated effects. The effects are driven by species differences in sensitivity to environmental conditions and modulate top-down (parasitism) and bottom-up (resource) regulation. This study highlights the need to account for differences in the sensitivity of species' traits to environmental stressors to understand how interacting species will respond to simultaneous anthropogenic changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Heartburn and dyspepsia symptom severity improves after treatment and correlates with histology in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis. [Journal Article]
- DEDis Esophagus 2019 Apr 25
- Non-dysphagia symptoms, such as heartburn and dyspepsia, are poorly characterized in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). It is unclear if treatment improves these symptoms. The aim of this pa…
Non-dysphagia symptoms, such as heartburn and dyspepsia, are poorly characterized in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). It is unclear if treatment improves these symptoms. The aim of this paper was to assess (i) heartburn and dyspepsia symptom severity in adult EoE patients using validated symptom measures; (ii) change in symptoms after treatment; and (iii) symptom association with endoscopic and histologic features. In a prospective cohort of adult EoE patients who were not responsive to proton pump inhibitor therapy, non-dysphagia symptoms were assessed with heartburn items from the validated GERD-HRQL (gastroesophageal reflux disease health-related quality of life) and SODA (severity of dyspepsia assessment) instruments. Subjects completed the questionnaires at baseline and after treatment. Association of baseline symptoms with endoscopic and histologic features, and before and after treatment with diet or topical steroids, was assessed. Eighty-six EoE patients (mean age 39 years, 57% male, 95% white) completed a baseline questionnaire and 62 completed the follow-up questionnaire. The mean baseline GERD-HRQL score was 4.5 ± 6.5 and the mean total SODA score was 41.0 ± 12.6. At baseline, there was a weak but significant correlation between peak eosinophils and the SODA score (r = 0.28; p = 0.03) and no association between heartburn and SODA scores and endoscopic or other histologic findings. After treatment, there was a decrease in GERD-HRQL heartburn (4.3 vs. 2.6; p = 0.04) and SODA (49.5 vs. 35.5; p = 0.04) scores in histologic responders, but not in nonresponders. In a prospective cohort of EoE patients, baseline eosinophils positively correlated with dyspepsia severity. Heartburn and dyspepsia symptoms improved after treatment in histologic responders.
- Safety, feasibility, and effect of an enhanced nutritional support pathway including extended preoperative and home enteral nutrition in patients undergoing enhanced recovery after esophagectomy: a pilot randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- DEDis Esophagus 2019 Apr 24
- The aims of this pilot study are to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of conducting an enhanced nutritional support pathway including extended preoperative nutritional support and o…
The aims of this pilot study are to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of conducting an enhanced nutritional support pathway including extended preoperative nutritional support and one month home enteral nutrition (HEN) for patients who underwent enhanced recovery after esophagectomy. We implemented extended preoperative nutritional support and one month HEN after discharge for patients randomized into an enhanced nutrition group and implemented standard nutritional support for patients randomized into a conventional nutrition group. Except the nutritional support program, both group patients underwent the same standardized enhanced recovery after surgery programs of esophagectomy based on published guidelines. Patients were assessed at preoperative day, postoperative day 7 (POD7), and POD30 for perioperative outcomes and nutritional status. To facilitate the determination of an effect size for subsequent appropriately powered randomized clinical trials and assess the effectiveness, the primary outcome we chose was the weight change before and after esophagectomy. Other outcomes including body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), nutrition-related complications, and quality of life (QoL) were also analyzed. The intention-to-treat analysis of the 50 randomized patients showed that there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics. The weight (-2.03 ± 2.28 kg vs. -4.05 ± 3.13 kg, P = 0.012), BMI (-0.73 ± 0.79 kg/m2 vs. -1.48 ± 1.11 kg/m2, P = 0.008), and ASMI (-1.10 ± 0.37 kg/m2 vs. -1.60 ± 0.66 kg/m2, P = 0.010) loss of patients in the enhanced nutrition group were obviously decreased compared to the conventional nutrition group at POD30. In particular, LBM (48.90 ± 9.69 kg vs. 41.96 ± 9.37 kg, p = 0.031) and ASMI (7.56 ± 1.07 kg/m2 vs. 6.50 ± 0.97 kg/m2, P = 0.003) in the enhanced nutrition group were significantly higher compared to the conventional nutrition group at POD30, despite no significant change between pre- and postoperation. In addition, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 scores revealed that enhanced nutritional support improved the QoL of patients in physical function (75.13 ± 9.72 vs. 68.33 ± 7.68, P = 0.009) and fatigue symptom (42.27 ± 9.93 vs. 49.07 ± 11.33, P = 0.028) compared to conventional nutritional support. This pilot study demonstrated that an enhanced nutritional support pathway including extended preoperative nutritional support and HEN was feasible, safe, and might be beneficial to patients who underwent enhanced recovery after esophagectomy. An appropriately powered trial is warranted to confirm the efficacy of this approach.
- Calcium chloride enhances the delivery of exosomes. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0220036
- Exosomes might have an unimproved potential to serve as effective delivery vehicles. However, when exosomes are developed for therapeutic applications, a method to enhance their delivery is important…
Exosomes might have an unimproved potential to serve as effective delivery vehicles. However, when exosomes are developed for therapeutic applications, a method to enhance their delivery is important. This study aimed to evaluate wheather calcium chloride (CaCl2) or other chloride compounds could enhance exosome delivery to various cells without causing toxicity. Exosomes were purified from human serum by using the ExoQuick exosome precipitation kit. Isolated exosomes were mixed with CaCl2 at concentrations ranging from 100 μM to 1 mM, and then washed using Amicon filter for treating the cells. The delivery efficiency of exosomes and the viability of the cells [HEK 293 (human kidney cells) and H9C2 (rat cardiomyocytes)] were evaluated. Cellular uptake of exosomes was observed using a confocal microscope based on PKH26 labeling of exosomes. CaCl2 increased the delivery of exosomes in a dose- and treatment time-dependent manner. In HEK 293 cells, a CaCl2 concentration of 400 μM and exposure time of 12 h increased the delivery of exosomes by >20 times compared with controls. In H9C2 cells, a CaCl2 concentration of 400 μM and exposure time of >24 h increased the delivery of exosomes by >400 times compared with controls. The viability of both cell lines was maintained up to a CaCl2 concentration of 1 mM. However, cobalt chloride, cupric chloride, and magnesium chloride did not change the delivery of exosomes in both cell lines. These results suggest that the use of CaCl2 treatment might be a useful method for enhancing the delivery of exosomes.
- How phenotypic convergence arises in experimental evolution. [Journal Article]
- EEvolution 2019 Jul 22
- Evolutionary convergence is a core issue in the study of adaptive evolution, as well as a highly debated topic at present. Few studies have analyzed this issue using a "real-time" or evolutionary tra…
Evolutionary convergence is a core issue in the study of adaptive evolution, as well as a highly debated topic at present. Few studies have analyzed this issue using a "real-time" or evolutionary trajectory approach. Do populations that are initially differentiated converge to a similar adaptive state when experiencing a common novel environment? Drosophila subobscura populations founded from different locations and years showed initial differences and variation in evolutionary rates in several traits during short-term (∼20 generations) laboratory adaptation. Here we extend that analysis to 40 more generations to analyze (1) how differences in evolutionary dynamics between populations change between shorter and longer time spans, and (2) whether evolutionary convergence occurs after sixty generations of evolution in a common environment. We found substantial variation in longer-term evolutionary trajectories and differences between short and longer-term evolutionary dynamics. Though we observed pervasive patterns of convergence towards the character values of long-established populations, populations still remain differentiated for several traits at the final generations analyzed. This pattern might involve transient divergence, as we report in some cases, indicating that more generations should lead to final convergence. These findings highlight the importance of longer-term studies for understanding convergent evolution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Diagnosing the Onset of Menopause. [Journal Article]
- JAMAJAMA 2019 Jul 22
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- [Possibilities of complex non-drug programs in the correction of psychoemotional disorders of menopause in patients with metabolic syndrome]. [Journal Article]
- VKVopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2019; 96(3):50-59
- CONCLUSIONS: Complex non-drug programs, including physiotherapy, effectively relieve perimenopausal psychoemotional disorders in patients with metabolic syndrome. Vibrotherapy substantially improves the results of treatment. Moderate psychoemotional disorders need the complex program to be applied simultaneously with vibrotherapy, chromotherapy, melotherapy, aromatherapy, and aeroionotherapy.