- Ciliostasis of airway epithelial cells facilitates influenza A virus infection. [Journal Article]
- VRVet Res 2018 07 18; 49(1):65
- Porcine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were used to analyze the effect of the ciliary activity on infection of airway epithelial cells by influenza viruses. Treatment of slices with 2% NaCl for 30 …
Porcine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were used to analyze the effect of the ciliary activity on infection of airway epithelial cells by influenza viruses. Treatment of slices with 2% NaCl for 30 min resulted in reversible ciliostasis. When PCLS were infected by a swine influenza virus of the H3N2 subtype under ciliostatic conditions, the viral yield was about twofold or threefold higher at 24 or 48 h post-infection, respectively, as compared to slices with ciliary activity. Therefore, the cilia beating not only transports the mucus out of the airways, it also impedes virus infection.
- Evaluation of full S1 gene sequencing of classical and variant infectious bronchitis viruses extracted from allantoic fluid and FTA cards. [Journal Article]
- APAvian Pathol 2018; 47(4):418-426
- Sequence variability in the S1 gene determines the genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains. A single RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify and sequence the full S1 gene for six classica…
Sequence variability in the S1 gene determines the genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains. A single RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify and sequence the full S1 gene for six classical and variant IBVs (M41, D274, 793B, IS/885/00, IS/1494/06 and Q1) enriched in allantoic fluid (AF) or the same AF inoculated onto Flinders Technology Association (FTA) cards. Representative strains from each genotype were grown in specific-pathogen-free eggs and RNA was extracted from AF. Full S1 gene amplification was achieved using primer A and primer 22.51. Products were sequenced using primers A, 1050+, 1380+ and SX3+ to obtain short sequences covering the full gene. Following serial dilutions of AF, detection limits of the partial assay were higher than those of the full S1 gene. Partial S1 sequences exhibited higher-than-average nucleotide similarity percentages (79%; 352 bp) compared to full S1 sequences (77%; 1756 bp), suggesting that full S1 analysis allows greater strain differentiation. For IBV detection from AF-inoculated FTA cards, four serotypes were incubated for up to 21 days at three temperatures, 4°C, room temperature (approximately 24°C) and 40°C. RNA was extracted and tested with partial and full S1 protocols. Through partial sequencing, all IBVs were successfully detected at all sampling points and storage temperatures. In contrast, using full S1 sequencing it was not possible to amplify the gene beyond 14 days or when stored at 40°C. Data presented show that for full S1 sequencing, a substantial amount of RNA is needed. Field samples collected onto FTA cards are unlikely to yield such quantity or quality.
- Comparative Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma gallinaceum in Chickens. [Journal Article]
- ADAvian Dis 2018; 62(1):50-56
- Mycoplasma gallinaceum is not among the most pathogenic mycoplasmas affecting poultry, but its continuous re-isolation from flocks in South Africa displaying typical signs of mycoplasmosis prompted u…
Mycoplasma gallinaceum is not among the most pathogenic mycoplasmas affecting poultry, but its continuous re-isolation from flocks in South Africa displaying typical signs of mycoplasmosis prompted us to revisit its role in respiratory disease. Specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens were co-challenged with either M. gallinaceum (MGC) and QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), or the more virulent Mycoplasm gallisepticum (MG) and IBV. No clinical signs were observed apart from sneezing in chickens challenged with IBV, MGC + IBV, and MG + IBV. On postmortem examination, one bird each in the MGC + IBV and IBV groups developed peritonitis or airsacculitis, respectively. In the tracheas, the MG + IBV group showed the most severe ciliary damage with a mean ciliostatic score of 32.40 compared to scores of 26.83 and 20.4 for the MGC + IBV and IBV groups, respectively. Corresponding tracheal lesions were recorded. Quantitation of the challenge pathogens by quantitative real-time PCR and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR determined that MGC was shed in much higher titers from the trachea than MG, when co-infected with IBV. Interestingly, the presence of both MG and MGC appeared to enhance IBV replication in the tracheas of infected chickens, whereas the presence of IBV suppressed MG and MGC proliferation in the trachea. In general, the nonpathogenicity of M. gallinaceum in chickens was confirmed, but it was able to aggravate respiratory disease and pathogen proliferation with virulent QX-like IBV.
- Mutations during the Adaptation of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus to the Respiratory Epithelium of Pigs Enhance Sialic Acid Binding Activity and Virulence in Mice. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2017 04 15; 91(8)
- The natural reservoir for influenza viruses is waterfowl, and from there they succeeded in crossing the barrier to different mammalian species. We analyzed the adaptation of avian influenza viruses t…
The natural reservoir for influenza viruses is waterfowl, and from there they succeeded in crossing the barrier to different mammalian species. We analyzed the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to a mammalian host by passaging an H9N2 strain three times in differentiated swine airway epithelial cells. Using precision-cut slices from the porcine lung to passage the parental virus, isolates from each of the three passages (P1 to P3) were characterized by assessing growth curves and ciliostatic effects. The only difference noted was an increased growth kinetics of the P3 virus. Sequence analysis revealed four mutations: one each in the PB2 and NS1 proteins and two in the HA protein. The HA mutations, A190V and T212I, were characterized by generating recombinant viruses containing either one or both amino acid exchanges. Whereas the parental virus recognized α2,3-linked sialic acids preferentially, the HA190 mutant bound to a broad spectrum of glycans with α2,6/8/9-linked sialic acids. The HA212 mutant alone differed only slightly from the parental virus; however, the combination of both mutations (HA190+HA212) increased the binding affinity to those glycans recognized by the HA190 mutant. Remarkably, only the HA double mutant showed a significantly increased pathogenicity in mice. In contrast, none of those mutations affected the ciliary activity of the epithelial cells which is characteristic for virulent swine influenza viruses. Taken together, our results indicate that shifts in the HA receptor affinity are just an early adaptation step of avian H9N2 strains; further mutational changes may be required to become virulent for pigs.IMPORTANCE Swine play an important role in the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses. Avian influenza A viruses (IAV) of the H9N2 subtype have successfully infected hosts from different species but have not established a stable lineage. We have analyzed the adaptation of IAV-H9N2 virus to target cells of a new host by passaging the virus three times in differentiated porcine respiratory epithelial cells. Among the four mutations detected, the two HA mutations were analyzed by generating recombinant viruses. Depending on the infection system used, the mutations differed in their phenotypic expression, e.g., sialic acid binding activity, replication kinetics, plaque size, and pathogenicity in inbred mice. However, none of the mutations affected the ciliary activity which serves as a virulence marker. Thus, early adaptive mutation enhances the replication kinetics, but more mutations are required for IAV of the H9N2 subtype to become virulent.
- The effect of topical corticosteroids, topical antihistamines, and preservatives on human ciliary beat frequency. [Journal Article]
- OJORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2014; 76(3):127-36
- CONCLUSIONS: Crystalline BKC and BKC-containing intranasal medications, including fluticasone propionate, azelastine hydrochloride and levocabastine hydrochloride, but not PS or PS-containing intranasal budesonide spray, led to irreversible ciliostasis in human nasal epithelial cell cultures when applied at clinically relevant concentrations.
- Evaluation of Flinders Technology Associates cards for storage and molecular detection of avian metapneumoviruses. [Journal Article]
- APAvian Pathol 2014; 43(2):125-9
- The feasibility of using Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards for the molecular detection of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was investi…
The feasibility of using Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards for the molecular detection of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was investigated. Findings showed that no virus isolation was possible from aMPV-inoculated FTA cards, confirming viral inactivation upon contact with the cards. The detection limits of aMPV from the FTA card and tracheal organ culture medium were 10(1.5) median ciliostatic doses/ml and 10(0.75) median ciliostatic doses/ml respectively. It was possible to perform molecular characterization of both subtypes A and B aMPV using inoculated FTA cards stored for up to 60 days at 4 to 6°C. Tissues of the turbinate, trachea and lung of aMPV-infected chicks sampled either by direct impression smears or by inoculation of the tissue homogenate supernatants onto the FTA cards were positive by RT-PCR. However, the latter yielded more detections. FTA cards are suitable for collecting and transporting aMPV-positive samples, providing a reliable and hazard-free source of RNA for molecular characterization.
- Replication characteristics of swine influenza viruses in precision-cut lung slices reflect the virulence properties of the viruses. [Journal Article]
- VRVet Res 2013 Nov 13; 44:110
- Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, …
Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, A/sw/Damme/IDT5673/2006 H3N2, A/sw/Herford/IDT5932/2007 H3N2). The viruses were able to infect ciliated and mucus-producing cells. The infection of well-differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by swine influenza A viruses was analyzed with respect to the kinetics of virus release into the supernatant. The highest titres were determined for H3N2/2006 and H3N2/2007 viruses. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 viruses replicated somewhat slower than the H3N2 viruses whereas a H1N1 strain from 2006 multiplied at significantly lower titres than the other strains. Regarding their ability to induce a ciliostatic effect, the two H3N2 strains were found to be most virulent. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 were somewhat less virulent with respect to their effect on ciliary activity. The lowest ciliostatic effect was observed with H1N1/2006. In order to investigate whether this finding is associated with a corresponding virulence in the host, pigs were infected experimentally with H3N2/2006, H1N2/2000, H1N1/1981 and H1N1/2006 viruses. The H1N1/2006 virus was significantly less virulent than the other viruses in pigs which was in agreement with the results obtained by the in vitro-studies. These findings offer the possibility to develop an ex vivo-system that is able to assess virulence of swine influenza A viruses.
- In vitro evaluation of nasal mucociliary clearance using excised rat nasal septum. [Journal Article]
- BPBiol Pharm Bull 2012; 35(6):889-94
- Mucus on the nasal mucosa is translocated to the pharynx by ciliary beating, which is an important nonspecific defense mechanism called mucociliary clearance (MC). MC is one of the important factors …
Mucus on the nasal mucosa is translocated to the pharynx by ciliary beating, which is an important nonspecific defense mechanism called mucociliary clearance (MC). MC is one of the important factors determining the rate and extent of drug absorption after nasal application. The purpose of this study is to evaluate MC using rat nasal septum under physiological condition in an in vitro system. The nasal septum was excised from rats anesthetized with urethane and the movement of fluorescent microspheres (FMS) applied on the nasal septum was observed with a fluorescence microscope. FMS were transported at a constant velocity in the same direction for a few minutes, but addition of 4% mucin solution on the nasal septum maintained MC for at least 90 min after excision. With our evaluation system established by modifying the method of Saldiva, MC was determined to be around 1 mm/min. Furthermore, the ciliostatic effect of benzalkonium chloride was observed, and it was confirmed that β-adrenergic antagonists and a cholinergic antagonist decreased MC, and that β-adrenergic agonists and a cholinergic agonist tended to increase MC, indicating that our system is valid and useful for evaluating MC function and the effect of drugs and pharmaceutical additives for nasal application on MC.
- Pathogenicity of in vivo-passaged Mycoplasma imitans in turkey poults in single infection and in dual infection with rhinotracheitis virus. [Journal Article]
- APAvian Pathol 1998; 27(1):80-9
- Mycoplasma imitans (Mim) is a close relative of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), but has been isolated from ducks, geese and partridge. In order to investigate its potential pathogenicity for turkeys a…
Mycoplasma imitans (Mim) is a close relative of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), but has been isolated from ducks, geese and partridge. In order to investigate its potential pathogenicity for turkeys a UK isolate of Mim from a partridge with sinusitis was first passaged through turkey poults and then assessed for pathogenicity in turkey embryo tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) and in one-day-old turkey poults with or without turkey rhinotracheitis virus (TRTV). Mim appeared to gain virulence on passage through poults and this was confirmed by an increased ciliostatic effect in TOCs. In single infection in poults the organism caused mild upper respiratory disease but in dual infection with TRTV there was a significant increase in clinical signs and lesions. The mycoplasma was only isolated from upper respiratory tract in single infection but was recovered also from lung and airsacs in the presence of the virus. There was also a higher humoral immune response in the dual infection than the single Mim infection and there were some cross-reactions with commercial Mg stained antigen in the rapid serum agglutination test.
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- Infection of the tracheal epithelium by infectious bronchitis virus is sialic acid dependent. [Journal Article]
- MIMicrobes Infect 2008; 10(4):367-73
- Avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus that infects chickens via the respiratory epithelium as primary target cells. The binding of coronaviruses to the cell surface is mediated by …
Avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus that infects chickens via the respiratory epithelium as primary target cells. The binding of coronaviruses to the cell surface is mediated by the viral surface protein S. Recently we demonstrated that alpha2,3-linked sialic acid serves as a receptor determinant for IBV on Vero cells and primary chicken embryo kidney cells. Here we analyze the importance of the sialic acid binding activity for the infection of tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) by different IBV strains. Our results show that alpha2,3-linked sialic acid also serves as a receptor determinant on chicken TOCs. Infection of TOCs by IBV results in ciliostasis. Desialylation induced by neuraminidase treatment of tracheal organ cultures prior to infection by IBV delayed the ciliostatic effect or resulted in partial loss of ciliary activity. This effect was observed with both respiratory and nephropathogenic strains. Inhibition of ciliostasis was also observed when TOCs were pretreated with an alpha2,3-specific neuraminidase. Analysis of the tracheal epithelium for reactivity with lectins revealed that the susceptible cells in the epithelium abundantly express alpha2,3-linked sialic acid. These results indicate that alpha2,3-linked sialic acid plays an important role for infection of the respiratory epithelium by IBV.