- Increased Prevalence of Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Socio-Environmental Risk Factors among Overweight and Obese Youths in Mexico and the United States. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 30; 16(9)
- The aim of this study was to examine various psychosocial, behavioral, and socio-environmental factors in a multiethnic sample of healthy-weight, overweight, and obese youths in the United States (US…
The aim of this study was to examine various psychosocial, behavioral, and socio-environmental factors in a multiethnic sample of healthy-weight, overweight, and obese youths in the United States (US) and Mexico and determine differences by sex. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 633 youths aged 11-18 years who completed a self-reported questionnaire. Height and weight were measured to determine body mass index (BMI). Overweight and obese youth in both countries were significantly more likely to report a higher body image dissatisfaction (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.67 and OR= 2.95, respectively), depressive symptoms (OR = 1.08 and OR = 1.12, respectively), perceive themselves as overweight (OR = 2.57) or obese (OR = 5.30), and a lower weight-specific quality of life (OR = 0.97 and OR = 0.95, respectively) than healthy-weight youth. Obese youth have lower healthy lifestyle priorities (OR = 0.75) and are less likely to be physically active (OR = 0.79) and eat breakfast (OR = 0.47) than healthy-weight youth. Additionally, overweight and obese youth are more likely to engage in weight control behaviors (OR = 5.19 and OR = 8.88, respectively) and restrained eating than healthy-weight youth. All the aforementioned results had a p-value of <0.05, which was considered statistically significant. The association between these factors and overweight or obesity remained significant after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and country. In conclusion, obesity was associated with a range of psychosocial, behavioral, and socio-environmental risk factors in both countries. Our findings support the need for multifactorial approaches when developing interventions to address the growing problem of obesity among youth in the US and Mexico.
- The Egocentric Nature of Action-Sound Associations. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2016; 7:231
- Actions that produce sounds infuse our daily lives. Some of these sounds are a natural consequence of physical interactions (such as a clang resulting from dropping a pan), but others are artificiall…
Actions that produce sounds infuse our daily lives. Some of these sounds are a natural consequence of physical interactions (such as a clang resulting from dropping a pan), but others are artificially designed (such as a beep resulting from a keypress). Although the relationship between actions and sounds has previously been examined, the frame of reference of these associations is still unknown, despite it being a fundamental property of a psychological representation. For example, when an association is created between a keypress and a tone, it is unclear whether the frame of reference is egocentric (gesture-sound association) or exocentric (key-sound association). This question is especially important for artificially created associations, which occur in technology that pairs sounds with actions, such as gestural interfaces, virtual or augmented reality, and simple buttons that produce tones. The frame of reference could directly influence the learnability, the ease of use, the extent of immersion, and many other factors of the interaction. To explore whether action-sound associations are egocentric or exocentric, an experiment was implemented using a computer keyboard's number pad wherein moving a finger from one key to another produced a sound, thus creating an action-sound association. Half of the participants received egocentric instructions to move their finger with a particular gesture. The other half of the participants received exocentric instructions to move their finger to a particular number on the keypad. All participants were performing the same actions, and only the framing of the action varied between conditions by altering task instructions. Participants in the egocentric condition learned the gesture-sound association, as revealed by a priming paradigm. However, the exocentric condition showed no priming effects. This finding suggests that action-sound associations are egocentric in nature. A second part of the same session further confirmed the egocentric nature of these associations by showing no change in the priming effect after moving to a different starting location. Our findings are consistent with an egocentric representation of action-sound associations, which could have implications for applications that utilize these associations.
- Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG). [Journal Article]
- CPClin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2016 Feb 29; 14(1):49-56
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the Korean version of the CLANG is a promising tool for evaluating language disorder in patients with schizophrenia.
- The relation between childhood maltreatment and self-injury: a review of the literature on conceptualization and intervention. [Review]
- TVTrauma Violence Abuse 2011; 12(1):23-37
- The following article reviews literature pertaining to the association between child maltreatment and self-injury and the ways it varies according to maltreatment type. Research supporting various me…
The following article reviews literature pertaining to the association between child maltreatment and self-injury and the ways it varies according to maltreatment type. Research supporting various mediators of the relations between different maltreatment types and self-injury is summarized. Informing mediator models, dominant theories of functionality, particularly affect regulation theories, are summarized and granted empirical support. Following from explanations of its functionality, three developmental pathways (regulatory, representational/interpersonal, and reactive/neurobiological) leading from child maltreatment to self-injury are presented within an organizational model of psychopathology. Understanding the deviations in these pathways that perpetuate self-injury helps to inform intervention approaches that forge pathways perpetuating resilience instead. Three psychosocial treatments (i.e., Dialectical Behavior Therapy [DBT], Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy [TF-CBT], and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy [ACT]) were chosen for review, based upon their accumulating evidence bases, as well as upon the relevance of their core components in correcting or compensating for trauma-related developmental deviations.
- Disintegration of the components of language as the path to a revision of Bleuler's and Schneider's concepts of schizophrenia. Linguistic disturbances compared with first-rank symptoms in acute psychosis. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Psychiatry 2003; 182:233-40
- CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating the features of psychosis as deviations in the cerebral organisation of language paves the way to a concept of psychosis that supersedes these traditional but competing categorical concepts.
- [On the nature of regressive state in hypnosis: a study by word-association-test]. [Journal Article]
- SKShinrigaku Kenkyu 1983; 54(2):81-7
- The purpose of this study is to reveal the nature of regressive state in hypnosis by means of word-association-test (WAT). Stimulus words for WAT, pronounced without intonation, was presented to hypn…
The purpose of this study is to reveal the nature of regressive state in hypnosis by means of word-association-test (WAT). Stimulus words for WAT, pronounced without intonation, was presented to hypnotic, control, and distraction groups. At the first test, all groups were under awaken state, and at the second test, hypnotic group was under hypnosis, distraction group was under distraction. (1) Under hypnosis, more visual images (signifié-images) and clang associations (significant-images) were imagined. The hypnosis was supposed to be a partial, controlled "regression in the service of the ego", and in this state the lexical meaning was not dissolved, but the unity among person, symbol, and referential object in Werner & Kaplan's sense was restored by the images. (2) The results suggest that hypnosis is different from distraction state, and is a state of specific concentration. (3) Since the signifié-image was contrary to the significant-image, these two were regarded as two aspects of regressive state in hypnosis. These two aspects are manifestation of emotional problems and restoration of body-mind unity.