- Cow-level factors associated with subclinical hypocalcemia at calving in multiparous Jersey cows. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2019 Jul 10
- The objective of our study was to identify cow-level factors associated with subclinical hypocalcemia at calving (SCH) in multiparous Jersey cows. A total of 598 Jersey and 218 Jersey × Holstein cros…
The objective of our study was to identify cow-level factors associated with subclinical hypocalcemia at calving (SCH) in multiparous Jersey cows. A total of 598 Jersey and 218 Jersey × Holstein crossbreed cows from 2 commercial dairy herds were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Blood samples to determine total Ca concentration were collected from the coccygeal vessels at 3 h 19 min (±2 h 33 min) after calving. We used 2 serum Ca concentration thresholds to define SCH: <2.00 mmol/L (SCH-2.00) and <2.12 mmol/L (SCH-2.12). We evaluated the association of cow-level factors with SCH with multivariable Poisson regression models. Variables evaluated for association with SCH were herd; parity (2, 3, and ≥4); breed; previous lactation length and 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield; previous lactation first test milk yield and last test somatic cell count; lengths of calving interval, gestation, dry, and close-up periods; body condition and locomotion scores at calving; calving ease; and calf sex for singletons. We categorized continuous variables into quartiles (≤25th percentile, interquartile range and ≥75th percentile). The prevalence of SCH among Jersey cows was 40 (SCH-2.00) and 64% (SCH-2.12). Jersey cows of higher parity had greater risk of SCH-2.00 and SCH-2.12. The risk of SCH-2.12 was higher after birthing male calves. We also found a tendency for previous lactation length and previous lactation 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield effect to affect risk of SCH-2.12. The risk of SCH-2.12 was lower for cows that had a previous lactation length shorter than the 25th percentile compared with cows that had a previous lactation length within the interquartile range. The risk of SCH-2.12 was higher for cows that had a previous lactation 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield below the 25th percentile compared with cows that had a previous lactation 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield above the 75th percentile. Also, Jersey × Holstein crossbreed was associated with increased risk of SCH-2.00. In the multivariable analysis, we observed no association between SCH and previous lactation first test milk yield; last test somatic cell count; lengths of calving interval, gestation, dry, and close-up periods; body condition and locomotion scores at calving; and calving ease. Our study identified parity, breed, calf sex, previous lactation length, and previous lactation 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield as cow-level factors associated with SCH in multiparous Jersey cows.
- StatPearls: Neuroanatomy, Spinal Nerves [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- The spinal nerves emanate from the spinal cord as pairs of nerves composed of both sensory and motor fibers that function as the intermediary between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripher…
The spinal nerves emanate from the spinal cord as pairs of nerves composed of both sensory and motor fibers that function as the intermediary between the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. These mixed nerves that collectively transmit sensory, motor, and autonomic impulses between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. In total, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, grouped regionally by spinal region. More specifically, there are eight cervical nerve pairs (C1-C8), twelve thoracic nerve pairs (T1-T12), five lumbar nerve pairs (L1-L5), and a single coccygeal nerve pair. While the nerves branch directly from the spinal cord and the central nervous system, the spinal nerves classify as a part of the peripheral nervous system.
- Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Tartrazine in Rats. [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Res 2019; 35(1):75-81
- Tartrazine (TAZ) is one of the most commonly used artificial dyes for foods and drugs. We determined the effect of TAZ on fetal development by examining morphological, visceral, and skeletal malforma…
Tartrazine (TAZ) is one of the most commonly used artificial dyes for foods and drugs. We determined the effect of TAZ on fetal development by examining morphological, visceral, and skeletal malformations in rat fetuses following daily oral administration of TAZ to pregnant Wistar rats at the 6th-15th day of gestation. TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced 6.0 and 7.1% fetal resorptions, as well as 10.0 and 10.5% fetal mortality, respectively. Fetal body weight and length were significantly lower in the groups treated with TAZ at 0.45 (3.97 ± 0.21 g and 27.3 ± 0.54 mm, respectively) and 4.5 mg/kg (3.48 ± 0.15 g and 23.22 ± 1.02 mm, respectively) than in the control group (4.0 ± 0.15 g and 30.01 ± 0.42 mm, respectively). TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced hepatic damage (20 and 33.3%, respectively), dark brown pigmentation due to hemosiderin in the splenic parenchyma (16.7 and 21.7%, respectively), as well as destructed and necrotic renal tubules (16.7 and 26.7%, respectively) in the fetuses. Moreover, TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg caused one or more missing coccygeal vertebrae (20 and 40%, respectively), missing sternebrae (6 and 10%, respectively), missing hind limbs (24 and 4%, respectively), and irregular ribs (16 and 20, respectively) in the fetuses. We concluded that TAZ has embryotoxic and teratogenic potentials in rats.
- Bovine Mammary Gland Biopsy Techniques. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vis Exp 2018 12 23; (142)
- Bovine mammary gland biopsies allow researchers to collect tissue samples to study cell biology including gene expression, histological analysis, signaling pathways, and protein translation. This art…
Bovine mammary gland biopsies allow researchers to collect tissue samples to study cell biology including gene expression, histological analysis, signaling pathways, and protein translation. This article describes two techniques for biopsy of the bovine mammary gland (MG). Three healthy Holstein dairy cows were the subjects. Before biopsies, cows were milked and subsequently restrained in a cattle chute. An analgesic (flunixin meglumine, 1.1 to 2.2 mg/kg of body weight) was administered via jugular intravenous [IV] injection 15-20 min prior to biopsy. For standing sedation, xylazine hydrochloride (0.01-0.05 mg/kg of body weight) was injected via the coccygeal vessels 5-10 min before the procedure. Once adequately sedated, the biopsy site was aseptically prepared and locally anaesthetized with 6 mL of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride via subcutaneous injection. Using aseptic technique, a 2 to 3 cm vertical incision was made using a number 10 scalpel. Core and needle biopsy tools were used. The core biopsy tool was attached to a cordless drill and inserted into the MG tissue through the incision using a clock-wise drill action. The needle biopsy tool was manually inserted into the incision site. Immediately after the procedure, an assistant applied pressure on the incision site for 20 to 25 min using a sterile towel to achieve hemostasis. Stainless steel surgical staples were used to oppose the skin incision. The staples were removed 10 days post-procedure. The main advantages of core and needle biopsies is that both approaches are minimally invasive procedures that can be safely performed in healthy cows. Milk yield following the biopsy was unaffected. These procedures require a short recovery time and result in fewer risks of complications. Specific limitations may include bleeding after the biopsy and infection on the biopsy site. Applications of these techniques include tissue collection for clinical diagnosis and research purposes, such as primary cell culture.
- Coccygeal Polypoid Eccrine Nevus. [Journal Article]
- APArch Pathol Lab Med 2019; 143(7):890-892
- Skin tags are fairly common lesions usually seen in adults on the neck and in body folds. The sacrococcygeal region is an unusual location for skin tags in children and may represent a congenital mal…
Skin tags are fairly common lesions usually seen in adults on the neck and in body folds. The sacrococcygeal region is an unusual location for skin tags in children and may represent a congenital malformation of the spine or an isolated skin lesion. In this review, we summarize the clinical presentation, histopathologic changes, and differential diagnosis of coccygeal polypoid eccrine nevus as a rare cause of sacrococcygeal papules in children.
- StatPearls: Anatomy, Back, Nucleus Pulposus [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- The spine is the primary support of the body. It helps to connect other bony structures. The spine is made up of individual bone segments (vertebra), ligaments, and discs. There usually are 33 verteb…
The spine is the primary support of the body. It helps to connect other bony structures. The spine is made up of individual bone segments (vertebra), ligaments, and discs. There usually are 33 vertebrae in the spine, seven cervical, 12 thoracics, five lumbar, five fused sacral, and four fused coccygeal. In between these vertebrae are the intervertebral discs. There are normally 25 discs in the spine: 7 in the cervical region, 12 thoracics, five lumbar, and one sacral. Each disc is made up of 3 main components. These components include the nucleus pulposus (NP), the annulus fibrosis (AF) and the cartilaginous endplates (CEP) The annulus fibrosis is a structure that wraps around the nucleus pulposus and is made up of collagen-rich tissue. The cartilaginous endplates are composed of a small amount of hyaline cartilage that is located in between the vertebral endplate and the NP. These cartilaginous endplates play multiple roles such as acting as a mechanical barrier and supporting nutrient transport for the intervertebral disc. The NP is the inner gel-like portion of the intervertebral disc. It is essential in giving the spine its mechanical flexibility and strength. It is mainly composed of water (66%-86%) and type II collagen. Also, it has proteoglycans as well as small cartilage-like cells interspersed throughout. These proteoglycans are helpful in retaining water in the NP which helps create its gel-like consistency.
- StatPearls: Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Posterior Abdominal Wall Arteries [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Several arteries course through the posterior abdominal wall. The aorta passes the aortic hiatus at T12 level through the diaphragm and descends anterior to the vertebral column. The aorta branches i…
Several arteries course through the posterior abdominal wall. The aorta passes the aortic hiatus at T12 level through the diaphragm and descends anterior to the vertebral column. The aorta branches into the right and left common iliac arteries at L4. The aorta gives rise to the inferior phrenic arteries just below the aortic hiatus. These vessels supply the diaphragm and also give rise to the suprarenal vessels. The renal arteries arise from the aorta just inferior to the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. The right renal artery is longer and a little inferior to the left renal artery and traverses behind the inferior vena cava (IVC). The left renal artery passes posterior to the left renal vein. Testicular or ovarian arteries descend into the retroperitoneum and run laterally on the psoas major muscle and across the ureter. The testicular artery accompanies the ductus deferens into the scrotum. Here it provides blood to the epididymis, testis, and spermatic cord. The ovarian artery traverses through the suspensory ligament of the ovary, supplies the ovary, and anastomosis with the ovarian branch of the uterine artery. Lumbar arteries consist of 4 or 5 pairs that originate from the back of the aorta. These vessels need to be ligated when performing aortic aneurysm surgery. They run posterior to the sympathetic trunk, the IVC (on the right side), the quadratus lumborum, and psoas major muscles. The lumbar vessels give off numerous small anterior branches and accompany the dorsal primary rami of the corresponding spinal nerves and divide into spinal and muscular branches. The middle sacral artery comes off the posterior of the aorta, just above the bifurcation; the vessel then runs down the anterior of the sacrum and ends at the coccygeal body. It supplies the anal canal and rectum and joins the superior and inferior rectal arteries. In the posterior abdominal wall, other important vessels that are not arteries include: IVC is formed by the union of the 2 common iliac veins just to the right of L5. The bifurcation of the IVC is almost always lower than the bifurcation of the aorta in the pelvis. As it ascends, the IVC remains to the right of the aorta. At the diaphragm, it ascends through the IVC hiatus at T8 and enters the right atrium. Through its course, it receives venous blood from the adrenals, renal veins, right gonads, hepatic veins, and inferior phrenic veins. The cisterna chyli, formed by the lumbar and intestinal lymphatics, lies just posterior and to the right of the aorta. It is usually located between the two crura of the diaphragm and ascends through the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm. The cisterna chyli is the inferior collecting sac of the thoracic duct which returns chyle to the venous system at the left brachiocephalic vein, where the left subclavian and left internal jugular veins converge. The para-aortic lymph nodes can be divided into subgroups which include the preaortic, retroaortic and lateral aortic groups. The preaortic nodes are located next to the origin of the celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Surgeons, radiologists, and other health professionals need to be familiar with these vessels as multiple pathologic conditions may develop resulting in untoward consequences from vessel injury.
- StatPearls: Anatomy, Back, Anterior Spinal Artery [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- The spine is the posterior portion of the human body. It is composed of the vertebrae interconnected with the spinal discs, known as nucleus pulposus. Together, this houses the spinal cord which exte…
The spine is the posterior portion of the human body. It is composed of the vertebrae interconnected with the spinal discs, known as nucleus pulposus. Together, this houses the spinal cord which extends from the brain, particularly, the medulla. It has a peripheral white matter and a central gray matter. In adults, the spinal cord ends at the lumbar level of L1 while in children it ends at L2-L3. The nerves then travel as a bundle known as the cauda equina. It is a bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve rootlets, which includes nerves L2 through L5, S1 through S5, and the coccygeal nerve. The spinal cord is the port through which commands from the body and brain can communicate. It converts electrical signals from the body to physical and physiological responses. Many tracts run parallel to one another in the white matter. These send messages from the brain and body to each other. There are 31 spinal nerves which pass through the vertebral sections to their respective dermatome or target location to propagate the signals. It also has a blood supply and lymphatics system for drainage. The anterior spinal artery is a major artery providing nutrient-rich blood supply to the entire spinal cord section except for the dorsal columns. This artery runs along the entire length of the spinal cord anastomosing with other arteries. The spinal cord is an area of many pathologies that can affect a large demographic. One of the most common complaints is back pain, which several etiologies can cause or it can be idiopathic. In recent years, surgical treatment for the conditions contributing to spinal cord injury is being performed. Spinal decompression is a very common procedure performed to relieve pressure on the impinged nerve. If blood flow to the anterior spinal artery is compromised, anticoagulation therapy can reestablish blood flow.
- Arterial Responses to Acute Low-Level Ergot Exposure in Hereford Cows. [Journal Article]
- FVFront Vet Sci 2018; 5:240
- Ergot alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea that contaminate cereal grains. Current Canadian standards allow 2 to 3 parts per million of ergot alkaloids …
Ergot alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea that contaminate cereal grains. Current Canadian standards allow 2 to 3 parts per million of ergot alkaloids in animal feed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hemodynamic parameters were altered when beef cows were fed permissible levels of ergot alkaloids (i.e., <3 ppm) on a short-term basis. A dose-response relationship between ergot alkaloid concentration and hemodynamic changes in caudal (coccygeal), median sacral, and internal iliac arteries was hypothesized. Beef cows were randomly allocated to: Control (<15 μg total ergot alkaloids/kg dry matter), Low (132 μg/kg), Medium (529 μg/kg), and High (2115 μg/kg) groups (n = 4 per group). Animals were fed 8.8 kg of dry matter daily for 4 days (pre-treatment), 7 days (treatment), and 4 days (post-treatment). The caudal, median sacral, and internal iliac arteries were examined daily using ultrasonography in B-mode and Doppler (color and spectral) mode and hemodynamics endpoints were analyzed by repeated measures mixed model analyses. Caudal artery diameter decreased in the Medium (p = 0.004) and High (p < 0.001) groups compared to pre-treatment values and the pulsatility index increased (p ≤ 0.033) in all ergot treatments during the post-exposure period compared to the Control group. Blood volume per pulse (mL) and blood flow (mL/min) through the caudal artery during the treatment period were reduced in the Medium (-1.0 mL reduction; p ≤ 0.004) and High (-1.1 mL p ≤ 0.006) groups compared to pre-treatment values. The median sacral artery diameter decreased in the Medium (p = 0.006) and High (p = 0.017) treatments compared to the Control group. No differences were detected in any hemodynamic endpoints for the internal iliac artery except changes in pulse rate (p = 0.011). There was no treatment (p > 0.554) or Treatment*Time interaction (p > 0.471) for plasma prolactin concentration or body temperature. In conclusion, alterations in caudal artery hemodynamics were detected when cows were fed 529 and 2115 μg ergot alkaloids per kg dry matter per day for 1 week. The caudal artery was more sensitive to ergot alkaloids than the median sacral and internal iliac arteries. Our results partially support the hypothesis of a dose-response effect of ergot alkaloids in feed on hemodynamics.
New Search Next
- Short communication: Effects of body fat mobilization on macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue of early lactation dairy cows. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2018; 101(8):7608-7613
- Intense lipolysis triggers an inflammatory response within adipose tissue characterized by adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration; however, the mechanisms triggering this process are poorly cha…
Intense lipolysis triggers an inflammatory response within adipose tissue characterized by adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration; however, the mechanisms triggering this process are poorly characterized in transition dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the association between ATM infiltration and body fat mobilization in the transition period, markers of excessive lipolysis, and adipose tissue expression of genes related to chemotactic and inflammatory responses. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken from the tailhead of 9 multiparous Holstein cows, 27 ± 2.2 d (far-off) and 10 ± 1.5 d (close-up) before and 9 ± 0.3 d after calving (fresh). Blood samples were collected by coccygeal venipuncture 2 h before adipose sample collections. Body condition score (BCS) was assessed independently by 3 experienced technicians at every time point. Based on BCS loss intensity between the close-up and fresh period, cows were divided into 2 groups: low BCS loss (LBCSL, change in BCS <0.25 units, n = 5) and high BCS loss (HBCSL, change in BCS >0.25 units, n = 4). Although none of the LBCSL cows had a health event, all cows in the HBCSL group suffered from one or more clinical disorder (retained placenta, milk fever, or ketosis) in the transition period. The number of ATM was determined by immunohistochemistry, and expression of selected chemotactic and inflammatory genes was determined by reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in subcutaneous adipose tissue samples. The proportion of ATM in subcutaneous adipose tissue increased in HBCSL during the postpartum period. The proportion of ATM was not associated with serum β-hydroxybutyrate or free fatty acid concentrations on the day of adipose tissue collection. The ATM infiltration in the fresh period was associated with local expression of the chemotactic genes, C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22), osteopontin (SPP1), and the receptor for SPP1, cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44). This supports a potential chemotactic role of CCL22 and SPP1 for ATM in bovine adipose tissue. None of the genes encoding pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL6, and IL10 were associated with the proportion of ATM. Our results indicate that ATM infiltration of subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with body fat mobilization in early-lactation dairy cows and supports a role for ATM in the adaptation of adipose tissues to the metabolic challenges of the transition period.