- Spermathecae: Morphofunctional features and correlation with fat bodies and trachea in six species of triatomine vectors of Chagas disease. [Journal Article]
- ATActa Trop 2019 May 18
- Since spermatheca is able to transport spermatozoa and maintain a specific microenvironment for the storage of viable sperm cells for long periods of time, specific morphofunctional features must be …
Since spermatheca is able to transport spermatozoa and maintain a specific microenvironment for the storage of viable sperm cells for long periods of time, specific morphofunctional features must be involved in this capacity, and an efficient nutritional and oxygen supply must be required. In this study, we investigated the histological features of spermathecae and fat bodies in six species of three genera of epidemiological importance for Chagas' disease. The association of the reproductive system with the fat bodies and tracheal system was also focused in these species. The reproductive system, tracheae and fat bodies were fixed in 4% formaldehyde, and embedded in glycol methacrylate. The sections were stained with H.E., picrosirius red and Periodic-Acid Schiff methods for morphological analyses. Paraffin-embedded spermatheca sections were submitted to immunofluorescence for detection of V-ATPase. In P. lignarius, R. montenegrensis and R. prolixus, the spermatheca contains a slightly dilated tubular distal portion. In P. megistus and T. tibiamaculata, the spermatheca shows a large bulbous distal portion, and in T. infestans, a large oval-shaped distal portion. In all species, this portion was surrounded by a thin muscular layer, and the epithelial height varied according to the shape of this terminal portion. All spermathecal proximal portions showed simple columnar epithelium surrounded by a thick muscular layer. The epithelial cells of spermathecae showed PAS-positive cytoplasm and V-ATPase immunofluorescence in the apical surface. Tracheoles and polysaccharide-rich fat body cells were found next or in close contact to the oviduct or spermathecal tissues. The results indicate that the spermatheca proximal portion is related to contraction and sperm transport, whose oxygen and energy supply is guaranteed by the associated tracheal branches and fat bodies. In the storage portion, fat bodies and tracheae seem to be crucial for the maintenance of an optimal spermathecal microenvironment and storage of viable sperm cells. The participation of V-ATPase in the spermathecae epithelial cells may contribute for the maintenance of an optimal luminal milieu to spermatozoa, by alkalinization and/or acidification of lumen, similarly to the other epithelial cell types in insects. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of this proton pump in the spermathecal epithelial cells.
- Finite-size effects on pattern selection in immiscible fluids subjected to horizontal vibrations in weightlessness. [Journal Article]
- PRPhys Rev E 2019; 99(4-1):042803
- A detailed numerical investigation of frozen wave pattern selection in finite rectangular containers under microgravity conditions is presented. The column growth cycle controlling mode transitions i…
A detailed numerical investigation of frozen wave pattern selection in finite rectangular containers under microgravity conditions is presented. The column growth cycle controlling mode transitions is described and the instability diagram showing selected wave number as function of the vibrational velocity is obtained. In contrast to the continuous monotonic dependence of pattern wave number on forcing predicted by linear inviscid theory in the limit of infinitely long containers, the pattern selection process in finite domains is characterized by solution branches that persist over discrete forcing intervals. We describe how properties of the selected frozen wave pattern, including the finite critical forcing value, depend on container length. In long containers, a transition from nearly symmetric to asymmetric columnar development is found at sufficiently high forcing values, with the loss of (approximate) reflection symmetry evident in the mean flow associated with the transient growth of the pattern. The effect of container height is considered separately, in the limit of both shallow and deep layers. Shallow layers suppress the development of long-wave perturbations leading to higher wave-number patterns whose growth may be associated with an asymmetric series of collisions between developing columns and container boundaries. In thick layers, lower pattern wave numbers are observed and, although the column growth is on average more regular, the final state is often asymmetric. Finally, we compare our results with the dependence on container aspect ratio Γ=L/2H predicted by inviscid theory. For Γ≳2, finite-size effects are reasonably weak and the numerically obtained thresholds are similar to but slightly higher than the theoretical values, most likely due to viscous effects. For Γ≲2, finite-size effects come to the fore and onset is significantly delayed.
- Satellite-based view of the aerosol spatial and temporal variability in the Córdoba region (Argentina) using over ten years of high-resolution data. [Journal Article]
- IJISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 2018; 145:250-267
- Space-based observations offer a unique opportunity to investigate the atmosphere and its changes over decadal time scales, particularly in regions lacking in situ and/or ground based observations. I…
Space-based observations offer a unique opportunity to investigate the atmosphere and its changes over decadal time scales, particularly in regions lacking in situ and/or ground based observations. In this study, we investigate temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric particulate matter (aerosol) over the urban area of Córdoba (central Argentina) using over ten years (2003-2015) of high-resolution (1 km) satellite-based retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD). This fine resolution is achieved exploiting the capabilities of a recently developed inversion algorithm (Multiangle implementation of atmospheric correction, MAIAC) applied to the MODIS sensor datasets of the NASA-Terra and -Aqua platforms. Results of this investigation show a clear seasonality of AOD over the investigated area. This is found to be shaped by an intricate superposition of aerosol sources, acting over different spatial scales and affecting the region with different yearly cycles. During late winter and spring (August-October), local as well as near- and long-range transported biomass burning (BB) aerosols enhance the Córdoba aerosol load, and AOD levels reach their maximum values (> 0.35 at 0.47μm). The fine AOD spatial resolution allowed to disclose that, in this period, AOD maxima are found in the rural/agricultural area around the city, reaching up to the city boundaries pinpointing that fires of local and near-range origin play a major role in the AOD enhancement. A reverse spatial AOD gradient is found from December to March, the urban area showing AODs 40 to 80% higher than in the city surroundings. In fact, during summer, the columnar aerosol load over the Córdoba region is dominated by local (urban and industrial) sources, likely coupled to secondary processes driven by enhanced radiation and mixing effects within a deeper planetary boundary layer (PBL). With the support of modelled AOD data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA), we further investigated into the chemical nature of AOD. The results suggest that mineral dust is also an important aerosol component in Córdoba, with maximum impact from November to February. The use of a long-term dataset finally allowed a preliminary assessment of AOD trends over the Córdoba region. For those months in which local sources and secondary processes were found to dominate the AOD (December to March), we found a positive AOD trend in the Córdoba outskirts, mainly in the areas with maximum urbanization/population growth over the investigated decade. Conversely, a negative AOD trend (up to -0.1 per decade) is observed all over the rural area of Córdoba during the BB season, this being attributed to a decrease of fires both at the local and the continental scale.
- Long-term outcomes of patch tracheoplasty using collagenous tissue membranes (biosheets) produced by in-body tissue architecture in a beagle model. [Journal Article]
- STSurg Today 2019 May 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Biosheets showed excellent performance as a scaffold for trachea regeneration with complete luminal epithelium and partial chondrocytes in a 1-year beagle implantation model of patch tracheoplasty.
- Two-Color Volumetric Imaging of Neuronal Activity of Cortical Columns. [Journal Article]
- CRCell Rep 2019 May 14; 27(7):2229-2240.e4
- To capture the emergent properties of neural circuits, high-speed volumetric imaging of neural activity at cellular resolution is needed. Here, we introduce wavelength multiplexing to perform fast vo…
To capture the emergent properties of neural circuits, high-speed volumetric imaging of neural activity at cellular resolution is needed. Here, we introduce wavelength multiplexing to perform fast volumetric two-photon imaging of cortical columns (>2,000 neurons in 10 planes at 10 vol/s), using two different calcium indicators, an electrically tunable lens and a spatial light modulator. We image the activity of neuronal populations from layers 2/3 to 5 of primary visual cortex from awake mice, finding a lack of columnar structures in orientation responses and revealing correlations between layers which differ from trial to trial. We also simultaneously image functional correlations between presynaptic layer 1 axons and postsynaptic layer 2/3 neurons. Wavelength multiplexing enhances high-speed volumetric microscopy and can be combined with other optical multiplexing methods to easily boost imaging throughput.
- StatPearls: Histology, Respiratory Epithelium [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- The respiratory system is constantly filtering through the external environment as humans breathe air. The airways must maintain the ability to clear inhaled pathogens, allergens, and debris to maint…
The respiratory system is constantly filtering through the external environment as humans breathe air. The airways must maintain the ability to clear inhaled pathogens, allergens, and debris to maintain homeostasis and prevent inflammation. The respiratory system subdivides into a conducting portion and a respiratory portion. The majority of the respiratory tree, from the nasal cavity to the bronchi, is lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. The bronchioles are lined by simple columnar to the cuboidal epithelium, and the alveoli possess a lining of thin squamous epithelium that allows for gas exchange.
- Pathogenesis and Cells of Origin of Barrett's Esophagus. [Review]
- GGastroenterology 2019 May 10
- In patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), metaplastic columnar mucosa, containing epithelial cells with gastric and intestinal features, replaces esophageal squamous mucosa damaged by gastroesophage…
In patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), metaplastic columnar mucosa, containing epithelial cells with gastric and intestinal features, replaces esophageal squamous mucosa damaged by gastroesophageal reflux disease. This condition is estimated to affect 5.6% of adults in the United States, and is a major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Despite the prevalence and importance of BE, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood and there are disagreements over the cells of origin. We review mechanisms of BE pathogenesis, including transdifferentiation and transcommitment, and discuss potential cells of origin including basal cells of the squamous epithelium, cells of esophageal submucosal glands and their ducts, cells of the proximal stomach, and specialized populations of cells at the esophago-gastric junction (residual embryonic cells and transitional basal cells). We discuss the concept of metaplasia as a wound-healing response, and how cardiac mucosa might be the precursor of the intestinal metaplasia of BE. Finally, we discuss shortcomings in current diagnostic criteria for BE that have important clinical implications.
- 5 nm Ordered Structures Self-Assembled by C2-Symmetric Hybrids with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane and Hexa-peri-Hexabenzocoronene. [Journal Article]
- CChemphyschem 2019 May 11
- Hybrids consisting of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) with a dumbbell topology and C2 symmetry were designed and synthesized. They self-assemble into…
Hybrids consisting of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) with a dumbbell topology and C2 symmetry were designed and synthesized. They self-assemble into 5 nm ordered structures. In particular, the increased steric effect with increasing POSS units stabilizes a square columnar phase (Colsqu) which is important in nanotemplates. These hybrids containing the discotic liquid crystal HBC and POSS units have an excellent etching contrast and provide an approach to obtain 5 nm nanopatterns.
- Colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma with clear cell components - two case reports. [Journal Article]
- DPDiagn Pathol 2019 May 10; 14(1):37
- CONCLUSIONS: We investigated tubular adenoma and tubular adenocarcinoma with clear cell components. The accompanying conventional tubular adenoma or adenocarcinoma cells helped us to evaluate the atypia of the clear cells. Diffuse cytoplasmic staining of CEA and CD10 suggested that the clear cell component might harbor malignant potential. We were unable to verify the well-known causes of clear cytoplasm, such as an accumulation of glycogen, lipid, or mucin and enteroblastic differentiation. The causes of clear cells in the colorectal region remain uncertain; however, possible explanations include autolysis and carbohydrate elution.
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- Morphological and immunohistochemical study of the midgut and fat body of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) treated with essential oils of the genus Piper. [Journal Article]
- BHBiotech Histochem 2019 May 08; :1-16
- Essential oils are a promising alternative to insecticides. We investigated the LD50 of oils extracted from Piper corcovadensis, P. marginatum, and P. arboreum after 48 h topical contact with Spodopt…
Essential oils are a promising alternative to insecticides. We investigated the LD50 of oils extracted from Piper corcovadensis, P. marginatum, and P. arboreum after 48 h topical contact with Spodoptera frugiperda larvae using morphometry, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the midgut and fat body. Chromatography revealed that E-caryophyllene was the principal compound common to the Piper species. The essential oils of P. corcovadensis, P. marginatum and P. arboreum caused deleterious changes in the midgut of S. frugiperda larvae. P. corcovadensis oil produced the lowest LD50 and significant histopathological alterations including elongation of the columnar cells, formation of cytoplasmic protrusions, reduction in carbohydrate, increased apoptotic index and decreased cell proliferation. P. arboreum oil caused histopathological alterations similar to P. corcovadensis, but caused the highest rate of cell proliferation and increased regenerative cells, which indicated rapid regeneration of the epithelium. Our findings demonstrated the insecticidal potential of P. corcovadensis for control of S. frugiperda owing to the significant damage it inflicted on S. frugiperda midgut.