- Residents perceptions of non-dietary pesticide exposure risk. Knowledge gaps and challenges for targeted awareness-raising material in Italy. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jun 17; 685:775-785
- Currently there are no tools to accurately estimate pesticides exposure risk for residents and bystanders. European Member States have to develop specific measures and communication strategies to pre…
Currently there are no tools to accurately estimate pesticides exposure risk for residents and bystanders. European Member States have to develop specific measures and communication strategies to prevent and minimize non-occupational pesticides exposure. Moreover, these measures should be compliant with the requirements of the Directive on Sustainable Use of Pesticides. Unfortunately, there is a high degree of uncertainties in the assessment of the non-dietary exposure risk for residents, therefore risk communication passes through a deep understanding of exposure risk perception. The objective of this pilot study is to assess citizens' risk perception of non-dietary exposure to pesticides, and to assist policy-makers and risk communicators in developing targeted awareness-raising materials for residents and bystanders. Through a household survey, conducted in the rural area of the province of Piacenza (IT) we investigated knowledge, health risk perceptions, and information sources related to non-dietary exposure to agricultural pesticides in residents' indoor and outdoor environment. The factors that push individuals to give importance to several possible pollution sources and to mitigation measures or precaution, in order to protect themselves from possible exposure sources, were also investigated. Results show that even if the air quality of the residential area is not judged negatively, pesticides are perceived as air pollutants that could lead to an actual exposure and, are correlated to the health status. The perception of risk, however, does not seem to be dependent only on the distance between homes and fields. The interpretative hypothesis that the perception of the relationship between air quality and health is influenced by the cultural issue and by psycho-sensory factors and not supported by proper information, even if with some differences among age groups, it seems to be confirmed. To better transfer knowledge and communication, the commitment of those who are recognised as "competent" (doctors and researchers) is critical.
- A real-time mechanism underlying lexical deficits in developmental language disorder: Between-word inhibition. [Journal Article]
- CCognition 2019 Jun 21; 191:104000
- Eight to 11% of children have a clinical disorder in oral language (Developmental Language Disorder, DLD). Language deficits in DLD can affect all levels of language and persist through adulthood. Wo…
Eight to 11% of children have a clinical disorder in oral language (Developmental Language Disorder, DLD). Language deficits in DLD can affect all levels of language and persist through adulthood. Word-level processing may be critical as words link phonology, orthography, syntax and semantics. Thus, a lexical deficit could cascade throughout language. Cognitively, word recognition is a competition process: as the input (e.g., lizard) unfolds, multiple candidates (liver, wizard) compete for recognition. Children with DLD do not fully resolve this competition, but it is unclear what cognitive mechanisms underlie this. We examined lexical inhibition-the ability of more active words to suppress competitors-in 79 adolescents with and without DLD. Participants heard words (e.g. net) in which the onset was manipulated to briefly favor a competitor (neck). This was predicted to inhibit the target, slowing recognition. Word recognition was measured using a task in which participants heard the stimulus, and clicked on a picture of the item from an array of competitors, while eye-movements were monitored as a measure of how strongly the participant was committed to that interpretation over time. TD listeners showed evidence of inhibition with greater interference for stimuli that briefly activated a competitor word. DLD listeners did not. This suggests deficits in DLD may stem from a failure to engage lexical inhibition. This in turn could have ripple effects throughout the language system. This supports theoretical approaches to DLD that emphasize lexical-level deficits, and deficits in real-time processing.
- A randomized trial to test the impact of parent communication on improving in-vehicle feedback systems. [Journal Article]
- AAAccid Anal Prev 2019 Jun 21; 131:63-69
- This randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of integrating Steering Teens Safe, a parent communication intervention, with feedback from an in-vehicle video recording system. In-vehicle vide…
This randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of integrating Steering Teens Safe, a parent communication intervention, with feedback from an in-vehicle video recording system. In-vehicle video systems that trigger a recording when the vehicle exceeds a g-force threshold have been used to provide feedback to young drivers. Few of these programs have involved parental engagement. Parent-teen dyads were randomized to three groups and 150 dyads completed the study. All groups received an in-vehicle video system that recorded driving events. The control group received no feedback or intervention. In the first intervention group, teens received real-time feedback, and parent-teen dyads received summary feedback, based on information recorded by the in-vehicle system. The second intervention group received the same feedback, plus parents were taught strategies to improve communication with their teen about safe driving. The primary outcome variable was unsafe driving event rates per 1000 miles driven and the primary independent variable was group assignment. Generalized linear models were used to calculate effect estimates. Compared with the control group, the Event Recorder Feedback group had a rate ratio of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.24 - 0.50) and the combined intervention group (Event Recorder Feedback and parent communication) had a rate ratio of 0.21 (95% CI = 0.15 - 0.30). Furthermore, the combined intervention group had a significantly lower event rate than the Event Recorder Feedback only group (rate ratio = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.41 - 0.87). While in-vehicle feedback systems can help reduce unsafe driving events in early independent driving, teaching parents strategies for effective communication with their young driver may further improve impact.
- A systematic review of asylum-seeking women's views and experiences of UK maternity care. [Journal Article]
- MMidwifery 2019 Jun 15; 77:16-23
- CONCLUSIONS: Mandatory provision of interpreter services, together with training for health care professionals could address urgent issues faced by pregnant asylum seekers. Further research and population-specific guidelines are needed to improve care for these women.
- Mammogram segmentation using multi-atlas deformable registration. [Journal Article]
- CBComput Biol Med 2019 Jun 11; 110:244-253
- Accurate breast region segmentation is an important step in various automated algorithms involving detection of lesions like masses and microcalcifications, and efficient telemammography. While tradi…
Accurate breast region segmentation is an important step in various automated algorithms involving detection of lesions like masses and microcalcifications, and efficient telemammography. While traditional segmentation algorithms underperform due to variations in image quality and shape of the breast region, newer methods from machine learning cannot be readily applied as they need a large training dataset with segmented images. In this paper, we propose to overcome these limitations by combining clustering with deformable image registration. Using clustering, we first identify a set of atlas images that best capture the variation in mammograms. This is done using a clustering algorithm where the number of clusters is determined using model selection on a low-dimensional projection of the images. Then, we use these atlas images to transfer the segmentation to similar images using deformable image registration algorithm. Our technique also overcomes the limitation of very few landmarks for registration in breast images. We evaluated our method on the mini-MIAS and DDSM datasets against three existing state-of-the-art algorithms using two performance metrics, Jaccard Index and Hausdorff Distance. We demonstrate that the proposed approach is indeed capable of identifying different types of mammograms in the dataset and segmenting them accurately.
- The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction in third-party punishment behavior. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroimage 2019 Jun 21
- Third parties punish, sacrificing personal interests, offenders who violate either fairness or cooperation norms. This behavior is defined altruistic punishment and the degree of punishment typically…
Third parties punish, sacrificing personal interests, offenders who violate either fairness or cooperation norms. This behavior is defined altruistic punishment and the degree of punishment typically increases with the severity of the norm violation. An opposite and apparently paradoxical behavior, namely anti-social punishment, is the tendency to spend own money to punish cooperative or fair behaviors. Previous fMRI studies correlated punishment behavior with increased activation of brain areas belonging to the reward system (e.g. the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, VMPFC), the mentalizing (e.g. the temporoparietal junction, TPJ) and central-executive networks. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the causal role of VMPFC and TPJ in punishment behaviors through the application of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Sixty healthy participants were randomly assigned to three tDCS conditions: (1) anodal tDCS over VMPFC, (2) anodal tDCS over right TPJ (rTPJ), (3) sham stimulation. At the end of the stimulation, participants played a third-party punishment game, consisting in viewing a series of fair or unfair monetary allocations between unknown proposers and recipients. Participants were asked whether and how much they would punish the proposers using their own monetary endowment. To test membership effects, proposers and recipients could be either Italian or Chinese. Anodal tDCS over VMPFC increased altruistic punishment behavior whereas anodal tDCS over rTPJ increased anti-social punishment choices compared with sham condition, while membership did not influence participant's choices. Our results support the idea that the two types of punishment behaviors rely upon different brain regions, suggesting that reward and mentalizing systems underlie, respectively, altruistic and anti-social punishment behaviors.
- Comfort Measures Orders and Hospital Transfers: Insights from the OPTIMISTIC Demonstration Project. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pain Symptom Manage 2019 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Most transfers of residents with comfort measures orders were considered unavoidable. Nonetheless, we identified several opportunities for improving care processes, including communication and addressing acute changes in status.
- Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles in breast cancer: from bench to bedside. [Journal Article]
- CLCancer Lett 2019 Jun 21
- Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) released from various tumor cell types comprise endosome-derived exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), which originate from plasma membrane budding. TEVs incor…
Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) released from various tumor cell types comprise endosome-derived exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), which originate from plasma membrane budding. TEVs incorporate a myriad of biomolecules such as proteins, DNAs, metabolites and microRNAs, which can be transferred from cell-to-cell. Besides their role in the disposal of biomolecules, TEVs serve to orchestrate fundamental processes of normal and malignant development, including breast cancer (BC). As such, TEVs are important constituents of the tumor microenvironment (TME) that act as communication shuttles through transduction of encapsulated molecular cargos from a parent to a recipient cell and through direct interaction with target cells. Emerging evidence suggests that TEVs support BC development and disease progression by fostering invasion, angiogenesis, pre-metastatic niche preparation, escape from immune surveillance, and induction of resistance to treatment. Although there is a long way to go in order to translate the current knowledge into actual clinical applications, TEVs represent promising candidates for diagnostic biomarkers, therapeutic carriers and targets. In the present review, we will summarize the current knowledge on TEVs in BC.
- Anti-colorectal cancer biotargets and biological mechanisms of puerarin: Study of molecular networks. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2019 Jun 21; :172483
- Based on network pharmacology analysis, this study was to uncover the anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) targets and molecular mechanisms exerted by puerarin. Pathological genes of CRC and therapeutic gene…
Based on network pharmacology analysis, this study was to uncover the anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) targets and molecular mechanisms exerted by puerarin. Pathological genes of CRC and therapeutic genes of puerarin were collected through well-established databases. The crucial targets of puerarin against CRC were further used for function and pathway enrichment assays to elucidate the biological processes and signaling pathways, followed by experiment-based verification. In network data, the most significant targets of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase-1 (TDP1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A-1 (ALDH1A1), muscleblind like splicing regulator 1 (MBNL1), aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (HPGD) were screened and defined in anti-CRC effects exerted by puerarin. In further enrichment assays, the functional processes of puerarin against CRC were associated with energy pathways, metabolism, cell communication, signal transduction, aldehyde metabolism, DNA repair. Meanwhile, key ten signaling pathways from bioinformatic findings were ascertained respectively. As revealed in human data, CRC patients showed up-regulated expressions of endogenous TDP1, ALDH1A1, accompanied with visible hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Ki-67 stains and elevated blood tumor marker expressions. In further study in vitro, puerarin-treated human CRC cells resulted in inhibited cell growth, increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent way. Further, down-regulated expressions of TDP1, ALDH1A1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected in puerarin-treated CRC cells. In conclusion, the molecular network data manifest the biotargets and signaling pathways of puerarin against CRC, followed by verification of both human and cell line studies. Furthermore, the pharmacological molecules of TDP1, ALDH1A1 seem to be the possible targets for managing CRC.
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- Multimodal stimuli regulate reproductive behavior and physiology in male túngara frogs. [Journal Article]
- HBHorm Behav 2019 Jun 21
- Unlike in terrestrial animals, the boundary between internal (e.g., hormones) and external (e.g., social) stimulation can be blurred for aquatic and amphibious species. When chemicals such as hormone…
Unlike in terrestrial animals, the boundary between internal (e.g., hormones) and external (e.g., social) stimulation can be blurred for aquatic and amphibious species. When chemicals such as hormones and glandular secretions leach into the water, they can further interact with other signaling systems, creating multimodal stimuli. It is unclear, however, whether water-borne chemical secretions from courting male frogs affect the physiology and behavior of their rivals. In order to address this question we first established non-invasive, continuous sampling methods for simultaneously measuring both hormones and behavior in amphibious species. Then, we examined whether interactions between water-borne chemical secretions and conspecific calls affect reproductive behavior and physiology (testosterone and corticosterone) of courting male túngara frogs. Our results demonstrate that conspecific acoustic stimulation alone increases locomotor activity, decreases latency to call, and increases calling behavior but does not alter the amount of hormones excreted. In response to water containing chemical secretions from rivals, but in the absence of calls from other males, males excrete more testosterone. Interestingly, the combined acoustic and chemical stimulus causes a multiplicative increase in both calling behavior and hormonal excretion. Taken together, our results suggest that a multimodal chemical-acoustic stimulus physiologically primes males for aggressive behavior.