- Long-term impact of a treatment protocol for acute ocular involvement in Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: A specific protocol for acute ocular care in SJS/TEN, including aggressive use of amniotic membrane transplantation, was highly successful in reducing corneal blindness and severe vision-threatening complications of the disorder.
- Evaluating a new objective grading software for conjunctival hyperaemia. [Journal Article]
- CLCont Lens Anterior Eye 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: These subjective and objective grading methods are not interchangeable. Due to the excellent repeatability and improved agreement between experienced and novice observers, the objective grading method provides a more consistent approach when grading ocular abnormalities and may achieve greater reliability in record keeping and clinical monitoring in the future.
- Development and validation of a new intraocular pressure estimate for patients with soft corneas. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cataract Refract Surg 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The bIOPs algorithm was more reliable at estimating the IOP in eyes with a soft cornea and was validated for use in eyes with keratoconus.
- Corneal higher-order aberrations in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. [Journal Article]
- OSOcul Surf 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The most common topographic patterns for SJS/TEN were minimal change pattern and asymmetric pattern. Corneal HOAs were associated with decreased visual acuity in SJS/TEN.
- Sutureless Customized Lamellar Corneal Transplant in a Patient with Gelatinous Drop-Like Corneal Dystrophy. [Case Reports]
- ECExp Clin Transplant 2019 Jul 19
- Patients with gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy need to be effectively managed as the disease is severely debilitating in view of associated pho-tophobia and glare. Here, we report a rare case o…
Patients with gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy need to be effectively managed as the disease is severely debilitating in view of associated pho-tophobia and glare. Here, we report a rare case of gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy effectively managed by intraoperative anterior segment optical coherence tomography-guided manual deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in 1 eye and sutureless fibrin glue-aided, microkeratome-assisted automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty in the other eye. The patient, a 22-year old man, presented with gradual diminution of vision associated with foreign body sensation, glare, photophobia, and watering due to corneal lesions, which were consistent with a diagnosis of gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy. Visual acuity at pre-sentation was 4/60 and 3/60 in the right and left eye, respectively. The patient received customized component lamellar keratoplasty in both eyes, and host tissue was sent for histopathologic examination. Treatment resulted in a best-corrected distance visual acuity of 6/9 and 6/12 in the right and left eye, respectively. The graft was clear and well apposed, with minimal interface haze bilaterally. The histopathologic report suggested intralamellar amyloid deposition in the form of homogenous, acellular eosinophilic deposits in the epithelium and anterior corneal stroma. This is a first report of the exclusive use of a fibrin-aprotinin tissue adhesive to stabilize a donor corneal lamellar graft as a treatment modality for a patient with gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy, suggesting that this treatment could supplant the need for sutures.
- Penetration Enhancers in Ocular Drug Delivery. [Review]
- PPharmaceutics 2019 Jul 09; 11(7)
- There are more than 100 recognized disorders of the eye. This makes the development of advanced ocular formulations an important topic in pharmaceutical science. One of the ways to improve drug deliv…
There are more than 100 recognized disorders of the eye. This makes the development of advanced ocular formulations an important topic in pharmaceutical science. One of the ways to improve drug delivery to the eye is the use of penetration enhancers. These are defined as compounds capable of enhancing drug permeability across ocular membranes. This review paper provides an overview of anatomical and physiological features of the eye and discusses some common ophthalmological conditions and permeability of ocular membranes. The review also presents the analysis of literature on the use of penetration-enhancing compounds (cyclodextrins, chelating agents, crown ethers, bile acids and bile salts, cell-penetrating peptides, and other amphiphilic compounds) in ocular drug delivery, describing their properties and modes of action.
- Impact of co-blocking the costimulatory signals on immune-related genes after high-risk rabbit corneal allograft using 2nd-generation DNA sequencing technology. [Journal Article]
- GMGenet Mol Biol 2019 Jul 18
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact and mechanism of co-blocking of costimulatory signals CD28-B7-CD40-CD40L during immune allograft rejection. Forty-eight recipient rabbits were prepare…
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact and mechanism of co-blocking of costimulatory signals CD28-B7-CD40-CD40L during immune allograft rejection. Forty-eight recipient rabbits were prepared as a high-risk corneal allograft model. After surgery, the animals were randomly divided into: control group, MR1 group, anti-B7 group, and co-blocking group (n=12, each group). Subconjunctival injection was first performed on the allograft surgery day until post-surgery day five. Four weeks later, or when immune rejection occurred, the cornea was sampled to detect and analyze the gene spectrum. The survival time in the co-blocking group was significantly longer than that in the other three groups (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of genes associated with immune rejection, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, and IL-2 was down-regulated in the co-blocking group, while IL-10 was up-regulated, but the changes in nuclear factor-κB and interferon-γ were not significant. In conclusion, the co-blocking of costimulatory signals can significantly reduce genes that promote corneal allograft rejection. The inhibition of corneal allograft rejection gene expression was significantly enhanced. These gene expression results can explain the conclusion of previous work at the genetic level.
- Schnyder corneal dystrophy-associated UBIAD1 mutations cause corneal cholesterol accumulation by stabilizing HMG-CoA reductase. [Journal Article]
- PGPLoS Genet 2019 Jul 19; 15(7):e1008289
- Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is a rare genetic eye disease characterized by corneal opacification resulted from deposition of excess free cholesterol. UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing pro…
Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is a rare genetic eye disease characterized by corneal opacification resulted from deposition of excess free cholesterol. UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) is an enzyme catalyzing biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin K2. More than 20 UBIAD1 mutations have been found to associate with human SCD. How these mutants contribute to SCD development is not fully understood. Here, we identified HMGCR as a binding partner of UBIAD1 using mass spectrometry. In contrast to the Golgi localization of wild-type UBIAD1, SCD-associated mutants mainly resided in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and competed with Insig-1 for HMGCR binding, thereby preventing HMGCR from degradation and increasing cholesterol biosynthesis. The heterozygous Ubiad1 G184R knock-in (Ubiad1G184R/+) mice expressed elevated levels of HMGCR protein in various tissues. The aged Ubiad1G184R/+ mice exhibited corneal opacification and free cholesterol accumulation, phenocopying clinical manifestations of SCD patients. In summary, these results demonstrate that SCD-associated mutations of UBIAD1 impair its ER-to-Golgi transportation and enhance its interaction with HMGCR. The stabilization of HMGCR by UBIAD1 increases cholesterol biosynthesis and eventually causes cholesterol accumulation in the cornea.
- Keratoconus Screening in Elementary School Children. [Journal Article]
- OTOphthalmol Ther 2019 Jul 18
- Keratoconus is a degenerative structural disease of the cornea. Progression leads to poor acuity that is not easily correctable by standard means. New treatments, such as collagen cross-linking, lead…
Keratoconus is a degenerative structural disease of the cornea. Progression leads to poor acuity that is not easily correctable by standard means. New treatments, such as collagen cross-linking, lead to better long-term outcomes if performed early in the disease course. Currently, children in the USA are screened for acuity in school, but not for keratoconus. Due to the severity of the disease in children, we recommend topographic screening in elementary schools as a way to provide early detection and treatment.Funding Research to Prevent Blindness provided funding for the Rapid Service Fees.
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- Mesenchymal cells and fluid flow stimulation synergistically regulate the kinetics of corneal epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface. [Journal Article]
- GAGraefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: The cell-cell interaction and fluid flow stimulation in the air-liquid interface synergistically or independently regulated the behavior of HCE-T cells. Fluid flow accelerated the phenotypic change from corneal fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 cells to myofibroblasts. Elucidation of the multicomponent interplay in this microenvironment will be critical to the homeostasis and regeneration of the cornea and other ocular tissues.