- Characterization of paralogous uncx transcription factor encoding genes in zebrafish. [Journal Article]
- GXGene X 2019; 2:100011
- The paired-type homeodomain transcription factor Uncx is involved in multiple processes of embryogenesis in vertebrates. Reasoning that zebrafish genes uncx4.1 and uncx are orthologs of mouse Uncx, w…
The paired-type homeodomain transcription factor Uncx is involved in multiple processes of embryogenesis in vertebrates. Reasoning that zebrafish genes uncx4.1 and uncx are orthologs of mouse Uncx, we studied their genomic environment and developmental expression. Evolutionary analyses indicate the zebrafish uncx genes as being paralogs deriving from teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Whole-mount in situ mRNA hybridization of uncx transcripts in zebrafish embryos reveals novel expression domains, confirms those previously known, and suggests sub-functionalization of paralogs. Using genetic mutants and pharmacological inhibitors, we investigate the role of signaling pathways on the expression of zebrafish uncx genes in developing somites. In identifying putative functional role(s) of zebrafish uncx genes, we hypothesized that they encode transcription factors that coordinate growth and innervation of somitic muscles.
- Gender-Related Effect of Sodium Dichloroacetate on the Number of Hassall's Corpuscles and RNA NKCC1 Expression in Rat Thymus. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2019; 2019:1602895
- The aim was to investigate the effect of dichloroacetate (DCA) on thymus weight, Hassall's corpuscle number (HCs), and NKCC1 RNA expression in Wistar rats aged 4-5 weeks. They were investigated in th…
The aim was to investigate the effect of dichloroacetate (DCA) on thymus weight, Hassall's corpuscle number (HCs), and NKCC1 RNA expression in Wistar rats aged 4-5 weeks. They were investigated in the controls and DCA-treated gonad-intact and castrated males and females. The treatment lasted 4 weeks with DCA 200 mg/kg/day. At the end of the experiment, rat thymus was weighted, and its lobe was taken for the expression of NKCC1 RNA determined by the PCR method and of Hassall's corpuscles by immunohistochemistry. DCA caused a thymus weight decrease in DCA-treated gonad-intact rats of both genders as compared with their controls (p < 0.05), and no such impact was found in castrated DCA-treated males and females. DCA caused an increase of the HCs in gonad-intact males (p < 0.05), and no such increase in the DCA-treated gonad-intact females was found. There was gender-related difference in the HCs when comparing DCA-treated gonad-intact males and females: males showed significantly higher HCs (p < 0.05); no gender-related differences were found in the castrated DCA-treated groups. The Slc12a2 gene RNA expression level was found to be significantly decreased only in gonad-intact and in castrated DCA-treated males. The authors discuss the gender-related DCA effects on the thymus.
- Expression and Distribution of PIEZO1 in the Mouse Urinary Tract. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Renal Physiol 2019 Jun 05
- The proper function of the organs that make up the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra) depends on their ability to sense and respond to mechanical forces including shear stress and…
The proper function of the organs that make up the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra) depends on their ability to sense and respond to mechanical forces including shear stress and wall tension. Yet, we have limited understanding of the mechanosensors that function in these organs and the tissue sites in which these molecules are expressed. Possible candidates include the stretch-activated PIEZO channels (PIEZO1 and PIEZO2), which are implicated in mechanically regulated body functions including touch sensation, proprioception, lung inflation, and blood pressure regulation. Using reporter mice expressing PIEZO1-tdTomato, we find that PIEZO1 is expressed in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, as well as organs in close proximity including the prostate, seminal vesicles and ducts, ejaculatory ducts, and the vagina. We further find that PIEZO1 expression is not limited to one cell type: it is observed in the endothelial and parietal cells of the renal corpuscle, the basolateral surfaces of many of the epithelial cells that line the urinary tract, the interstitial cells of the bladder and ureters, and populations of smooth and striated muscle cells. We propose that in the urinary tract PIEZO1 likely functions as a mechanosensor that triggers responses to wall tension.
- HGSNAT enzyme deficiency results in accumulation of heparan sulfate in podocytes and basement membranes. [Journal Article]
- HHHistol Histopathol 2019 Jun 03; :18131
- Mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes. The disorder occurs due to Heparan Acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltra…
Mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes. The disorder occurs due to Heparan Acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (HGSNAT) deficiency, an enzyme which typically catalyzes the transmembrane acetylation of heparan sulfate, a basement membrane component. When the gene encoding this enzyme is mutated, it cannot perform the processing of heparan sulfate, leading to un-acetylated heparan sulfate build-up in the lysosomes of cells, causing a storage disorder. This defect has been studied primarily in brain and liver cells, but its effect on the structural integrity of the glomerulus is poorly known. The present study focuses on the effect of Hgsnat gene inactivation and heparan sulfate toxicity on the integrity of the renal corpuscle. This cortical structure was chosen because of its abundance of basement membranes and heparan sulfate as well as the renal corpuscle's physiological importance in glomerular filtration. Light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry of genetically modified mice revealed a buildup of lysosomes in the podocytes, suggesting that these cells are responsible for the processing of glomerular basement membranes.
- Pacinian neuromas and neurofibromas of the hands and fingers: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hand Surg Eur Vol 2019 Jun 02; :1753193419852118
- Tumours involving Pacinian corpuscles are rare. The literature identifies two main pathological disorders: the Pacinian corpuscle neuroma or hyperplasia and the Pacinian corpuscle neurofibroma. Publi…
Tumours involving Pacinian corpuscles are rare. The literature identifies two main pathological disorders: the Pacinian corpuscle neuroma or hyperplasia and the Pacinian corpuscle neurofibroma. Published data are confusing and at times conflicting. This systematic review summarizes the available data in order to support clinicians in the differential diagnosis with other tumours responsible for unclear symptoms in the hands and fingers. We identified 67 pertinent articles. Although some similarities have been described, the two tumours have relevant differences, specifically when comparing age of the patient, location, symptoms, characteristic of a mass, and aetiology. All these factors should be taken into account in order to improve diagnostic accuracy. Despite the low incidence of unsuccessful surgeries, extraordinary measures are occasionally necessary to achieve complete resolution of symptoms.
- Efficacy and safety of moxibustion in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A systematic review protocol. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98(20):e15678
- CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide a clear basis for understanding the efficacy and adverse reactions of moxibustion treatment for CP/CPPS.
- Normal Pacinian corpuscles in the hand: radiology-pathology correlation in a cadaver study. [Journal Article]
- SRSkeletal Radiol 2019 May 08
- CONCLUSIONS: On MRI, normal Pacinian corpuscles appear as round or oval, T2-hyperintense subcutaneous nodules in the palms, clustered around the metacarpophalangeal joints, and should not be mistaken for pathological conditions.
- Role of the thioredoxin interacting protein in diabetic nephropathy and the mechanism of regulating NOD‑like receptor protein 3 inflammatory corpuscle. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Med 2019; 43(6):2440-2450
- Inflammatory response serves an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the mechanism of inflammatory response results in renal damage is not yet clear. The aim of the present study was…
Inflammatory response serves an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the mechanism of inflammatory response results in renal damage is not yet clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP)/NOD‑like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) axis‑mediated activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in DN. A diabetic rat model was induced by streptozotocin injection. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and streptavidin‑peroxidase staining were then used to examine the kidney tissue morphology, and TXNIP and NLRP3 protein expression levels, respectively. Furthermore, RNA interference technology was applied to silence the TXNIP gene. TXNIP and NLRP3 inflammasome activation‑associated proteins and mRNAs were detected by western blot analysis and RT‑qPCR, respectively. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay was also used to examine interleukin (IL)‑1 and IL‑18 expression, while flow cytometry was performed to detect reactive oxygen species production. The data revealed that TXNIP and NLRP3 were overexpressed in kidney tissue of DN rats, and the level of antioxidant genes was downregulated. It was also observed that glucose promoted TXNIP expression and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in a time‑dependent and dose‑dependent manner, therefore promoting inflammatory responses. Silencing of TXNIP gene resulted in the downregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and inhibited the expression levels of IL‑1 and IL‑18 in a high‑glucose environment. Furthermore, low expression of TXNIP promoted the levels of antioxidant genes and reduced the ROS levels. Taken together, the high‑glucose environment was able to upregulated the level of inflammatory factors by promoting the expression of TXNIP and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, consequently participating in DN.
- Postural Strategy in Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young People during Local Vibratory Stimulation for Proprioceptive Inputs. [Journal Article]
- GGeriatrics (Basel) 2018 Dec 19; 3(4)
- Proprioceptive input may greatly affect postural stability. However, the proprioceptive postural strategy in elderly, middle-aged, and young people has not been investigated sufficiently. Hence, in t…
Proprioceptive input may greatly affect postural stability. However, the proprioceptive postural strategy in elderly, middle-aged, and young people has not been investigated sufficiently. Hence, in this study, we aimed to investigate differences in proprioceptive postural strategies of elderly, middle-aged, and young people. The center of pressure displacement was determined in 23 elderly, 23 middle-aged, and 23 young people during upright stance on a balance board with their eyes closed. Vibratory stimulations at 30, 60, and 240 Hz were applied to the lumbar multifidus (LM) and gastrocnemius (GS) muscles to evaluate the contributions of different proprioceptive signals used in balance control. Compared with middle-aged and young people, elderly people showed a high dependence on postural control of the GS at 30 Hz (p-values: Young and elderly: 0.033; middle-aged and elderly: 0.001). Moreover, compared with young people, elderly people were more dependent on postural control of the LM at 240 Hz (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences with respect to the GS at 60 and 240 Hz, and with respect to the LM at 30 and 60 Hz between the elderly, young, and middle-aged people. Thus, the postural control strategy of elderly people depends on the GS at 30 Hz.
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- Painful Vater-Pacini neuroma of the digit in neurofibromatosis type 1. [Case Reports]
- GIGMS Interdiscip Plast Reconstr Surg DGPW 2019; 8:Doc03
- Vater-Pacini neuromas are rare causes of severe pain in the phalanges. The cause of this change in the tactile corpuscles is unknown. A traumatic cause has been plausibly demonstrated, at least in so…
Vater-Pacini neuromas are rare causes of severe pain in the phalanges. The cause of this change in the tactile corpuscles is unknown. A traumatic cause has been plausibly demonstrated, at least in some cases. Here, the rare occurrence of a Vater-Pacini neuroma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 is reported. The discussion addresses the difficulties of terminology and current diagnostic procedures for differentiating small nodular masses of the palm and digits. The surgical treatment leads to rapid relief of the symptoms.