- Breastfeeding problems and interventions performed on problems: systematic review based on studies made in Turkey. [Review]
- TPTurk Pediatri Ars 2018; 53(3):134-148
- To determine the breastfeeding problems encountered in the postpartum period and effect of interventions done in relation to the problems based on breastfeeding studies in Turkey. This study is a sys…
To determine the breastfeeding problems encountered in the postpartum period and effect of interventions done in relation to the problems based on breastfeeding studies in Turkey. This study is a systematic review and was conducted by performing a scan of the Turkish and English literature over the period October 2016-February 2017. The study included 27 articles and seven theses, which were published in 2000-2015 in Turkey and published in 2008-2017. Data are presented tabulating and the aggregate percentages were calculated for some data showing common characteristics. A total of 6736 parents and 592 babies were included in these studies. As a result of the combined percentage calculation based on the data of cross-sectional and case-control studies, the most frequently reported problems were having breastfeeding problem (24.5%), mother's milk deficiency/worry about milk deficiency/thinking her baby is not satisfied/baby's inadequate weight gain (15.7%), lack of knowledge and experience about breastfeeding/need for education and support (17.8%). Again, these studies showed that women stated the problems about have flat/depressed/small nipple (7.7%), pain/sensitivity (3.9%), swelling/fullness/engorgement (10.8%), redness (28.8%), crack/wound/bleeding (26.1%) and mastitis (5.6%). Methods of prenatal education/counselling/motivation/follow-up, strong motivation, proactive lactation management and social support, moist warm application, using of breast milk and olive oil and using of breast shield and feeding with container and pacifier using have been reported to be effective in the experimental/quasi-experimental and case report studies included in this systematic review. This study showed that women experienced a lot problem with breastfeeding and that more prenatal education/counselling/monitoring was used in reducing problems.
- Drug Use during Pregnancy and its Consequences: A Nested Case Control Study on Severe Maternal Morbidity. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018; 40(9):518-526
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of psychoactive substances during pregnancy is frequent and associated with worse maternal, perinatal and child development outcomes.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed): Cocaine [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- No data are available on the medical use of cocaine in nursing mothers. However, because of its chemical nature, high concentrations of cocaine are expected in milk. Cocaine and its metabolites…
No data are available on the medical use of cocaine in nursing mothers. However, because of its chemical nature, high concentrations of cocaine are expected in milk. Cocaine and its metabolites are detectable in breastmilk, although data are from random breastmilk screening of mothers who used cocaine recreationally rather than controlled studies. Cocaine breastmilk concentrations have varied over 100-fold in these reports. Newborn infants are extremely sensitive to cocaine because they have not yet developed the enzyme that inactivates it and serious adverse reactions have been reported in a newborn infant exposed to cocaine via breastmilk. Cocaine should not be used by nursing mothers or smoked (such as with "crack") by anyone in the vicinity of infants because the infants can be exposed by inhaling the smoke. Other factors to consider are the possibility of positive urine tests in breastfed infants which might have legal implications, and the possibility of other harmful contaminants in street drugs. A breastfeeding abstinence period of 24 hours has been suggested for women who occasionally use cocaine while breastfeeding, based on the rapid elimination of cocaine by the mother. Some authors have proposed that breastfeeding be discontinued only for those infants who test positive for cocaine exposure. However, the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine suggests that women who have abused cocaine generally should not breastfeed unless they have a negative maternal urine toxicology at delivery, have been abstinent for at least 90 days, are in a substance abuse treatment program and plan to continue it in the postpartum period, have the approval of their substance abuse counselor, have been engaged and compliant in their prenatal care, and have no other contraindications to breastfeeding.
- Binge alcohol and substance use across birth cohorts and the global financial crisis in the United States. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0199741
- CONCLUSIONS: Millennials have been especially affected by socioeconomic changes associated with the GFC as reflected by their heightened vulnerability and increased use of binge alcohol and other substances compared to preceding generations. These findings suggest that attention is needed to address disparities in socioeconomic vulnerability, relationships to substance use and overall mental health of Millennials to mitigate the potential long term negative impacts of the GFC. In the context of a continuing international opioid and heroin crisis, the ways in which Millennials have been differentially affected warrants much greater attention both from policymakers and from researchers.
- Use of crack in pregnancy: repercussions for the newborn. [Journal Article]
- IEInvest Educ Enferm 2017; 35(3):X
- CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the use of crack in pregnancy leads to repercussions related to the health of the newborn and repercussions related to family restructuring. In this sense, the recruitment of pregnant users of crack by health/nursing professionals and referral for high-risk prenatal care, as well as early identification of the peculiarities of the newborns of these women, and the development of actions that minimize the repercussions of crack are imperative.
- Increased cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript cord blood levels in the newborns exposed to crack cocaine in utero. [Journal Article]
- PPsychopharmacology (Berl) 2018; 235(1):215-222
- CONCLUSIONS: The increase in CART levels in EN UBC suggests a response to crack/cocaine-induced oxidative stress during gestational period, as a potential attempt of neuroprotection. In adult women in puerperium, however, this endogenous antioxidant recruitment does not seem to operate.
- Factors associated with attrition rate in a supportive care service for substance using pregnant women in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Addict 2017; 26(7):676-679
- CONCLUSIONS: Attrition may be the outcome of socio-demographic, family, individual, and substance use issues not fully addressed in prenatal interventions.Identification of who are at risk for dropping out affords services with an opportunity to prevent its occurrence. (Am J Addict 2017;26:676-679).
- The Effects of Different Breastfeeding Training Techniques Given for Primiparous Mothers Before Discharge on the Incidence of Cracked Nipples. [Controlled Clinical Trial]
- BMBreastfeed Med 2017; 12:311-315
- CONCLUSIONS: The results documented that breastfeeding training based on one-to-one demonstration utilizing specially designed audiovisual tools was more effective than the other two methods in the prevention of nipple cracks.
- TBARS and BDNF levels in newborns exposed to crack/cocaine during pregnancy: a comparative study. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Psychiatry 2017 Jul-Sep; 39(3):263-266
- CONCLUSIONS: The changes in TBARS levels observed in EN suggest that fetuses exposed to cocaine mobilize endogenous antioxidant routes since very early stages of development. The increase in BDNF levels in EN might indicate changes in fetal development, whereas the changes in BDNF levels in mothers provide evidence of the complex metabolic processes involved in drug use during pregnancy.
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- Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2016; 38(4):183-8
- Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of deliver…
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p < 0.001). Low birth weight (2,620 g versus 3,333 g on average, p < 0.001) and maternal syphilis (15.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001) were associated with the use of these illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs.