- Systematic review with meta-analysis: high mortality in patients with nonsevere alcoholic hepatitis. [Review]
- APAliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 Jun 23
- CONCLUSIONS: Nonsevere alcoholic hepatitis is not benign with 6% and 13% 28-day and 1-year mortality, respectively. This systematic review demonstrates the paucity of high quality studies in patients with nonsevere alcoholic hepatitis. Our analysis suggests that patients who do not meet criteria for severe alcoholic hepatitis are an important and hitherto overlooked clinical group. Full characterisation of clinical outcome and development of treatment strategies to reduce mortality in this group is a priority.
- Cryptosporidium Sp. Findings and Its Symptomatology among Immunocompromised Patients. [Journal Article]
- OAOpen Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 May 31; 7(10):1567-1571
- CONCLUSIONS: High consideration of several symptoms related to cryptosporidiosis leads a clinician to initiate prompt management particularly in a high-risk population.
- Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir for 12 Weeks in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Undergoing Dialysis. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hepatol 2019 Jun 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks was safe and effective in patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis.
- Correction: Water intake after dehydration makes muscles more susceptible to cramp but electrolytes reverse that effect. [Published Erratum]
- BOBMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2019; 5(1):e000478corr1
- [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000478.].
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000478.].
- Profiling of Polar Metabolites in Mouse Feces Using Four Analytical Platforms to Study the Effects Of Cathelicidin-Related Antimicrobial Peptide in Alcoholic Liver Disease. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Proteome Res 2019 Jun 12
- Alterations in gut bacterial homeostasis result in changes in intestinal metabolites. To investigate the effects of alcohol on fecal metabolites and the role of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial pep…
Alterations in gut bacterial homeostasis result in changes in intestinal metabolites. To investigate the effects of alcohol on fecal metabolites and the role of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), CRAMP knockout (KO) and their control wild type (WT) mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with or without alcohol. Polar metabolites in mouse feces were analyzed by GC × GC-MS and 2DLC-MS, and the concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by GC-MS. A total of 95 and 190 metabolites were detected by GC × GC-MS and 2DLC-MS, respectively. Among the significantly changed metabolites, taurine and nicotinic acid were decreased in WT mice fed alcohol, which were also down-regulated in KO mice fed without alcohol. Interestingly, these two metabolites were increased in KO mice fed alcohol compared to them in WT controls. Additionally, SCFAs were significantly decreased in WT mice fed alcohol and in KO mice fed without alcohol, whereas two branched-chain SCFAs were increased by alcohol treatment in KO mice. In summary, the analytical platforms employed in this study successfully dissected the alterations of polar metabolites and SCFAs in fecal samples, which helped understand the effects of alcohol consumption and CRAMP in intestinal metabolism and alcohol-induced liver injury.
- Clinical features of liver cirrhosis patients with muscle cramping: a multicenter study. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jun 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Intervention for muscle cramping improves total QOL in LC patients with such symptom.
- Ex Vivo T Cell Cytokine Expression Predicts Survival in Patients with Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis. [Journal Article]
- GLGut Liver 2019 Jun 03
- Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory liver condition with high early mortality rate. Steroids have been demonstrated to lead to short-term survival benefits but nonresponders have the wo…
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory liver condition with high early mortality rate. Steroids have been demonstrated to lead to short-term survival benefits but nonresponders have the worst outcomes. There is a clinical need to identify these high-risk individuals at the time of presentation. T cells have been implicated in AH and steroid responsiveness. We aimed to measure ex vivo T cell cytokine expression as a candidate biomarker of outcomes in patients with AH. Consecutive patients with AH (patients with bilirubin levels >80 µmol/L and the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase >1.5 who were heavy alcohol consumers with discriminant function [DF] ≥32), were recruited from University Hospitals Plymouth NHS Trust. T cells were obtained and stimulated ex vivo before cytokine expression levels were determined by flow cytometry and protein multiplex analysis. Twenty-three patients were recruited (10 male; median age 51 years; baseline DF 67; 30% 90-day mortality). Compared to T cells from nonsurvivors at day 90, T cells from survivors had higher baseline intracellular IL-10:IL-17A ratios (0.43 vs 1.20, p=0.02). Multiplex protein analysis identified interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as independent predictors of 90-day mortality (p=0.04, p=0.01, respectively). The ratio of IFNγ to TNF-α was predictive of 90-day mortality (1.4 vs 0.2, p=0.03). These data demonstrate the potential utility of T cell cytokine release assays performed on pretreatment blood samples as biomarkers of survival in patients with severe AH. Our key findings were that both the ratio of intracellular interleukin (IL)-10 to IL-17A and the ratio of IFNγ to TNF-α in culture supernatants were predictors of 90-day mortality. This offers the promise of developing T cell-based diagnostic tools for risk stratification.
- Myeloid cell-derived LL-37 promotes lung cancer growth by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. [Journal Article]
- TTheranostics 2019; 9(8):2209-2223
- CONCLUSIONS: LL-37 may be a critical molecular link between tumor-supportive immune cells and tumors, facilitating the progression of lung cancer.
- Mechanistic basis for the loss of water balance in green tree frogs infected with a fungal pathogen. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2019 May 29
- Chytridiomycosis, a lethal skin disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) disrupts skin function of amphibians, interfering with ionic and osmotic regulation. To regul…
Chytridiomycosis, a lethal skin disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) disrupts skin function of amphibians, interfering with ionic and osmotic regulation. To regulate fungal loads, amphibians increase their rate of skin sloughing. However, sloughing also causes a temporary loss of ionic and osmotic homeostasis due to disruption of the skin, a key osmoregulatory organ. The combined effects of increased sloughing frequency and chytridiomycosis contribute to the high rates of mortality from Bd infections. However, the mechanisms responsible for the loss of cutaneous osmotic regulation remain unknown. We measured the changes in whole-animal water uptake rates, in-vitro trans-cutaneous water fluxes across the ventral skin, and the mRNA expression of epithelial water transport proteins (aquaporins, AQPs) and junctional proteins in Bd-infected and uninfected Litoria caerulea skin. We hypothesize that infected frogs would show reduction/inhibition in cutaneous water transporters responsible for regulating water balance, and sloughing would exacerbate cutaneous water fluxes. We found that infected, non-sloughing frogs had an impaired rate of water uptake and showed increased rates of in-vitro water efflux across the ventral skin. In uninfected frogs, the expression of AQPs and junction genes increased significantly with sloughing which may assist in regulating cutaneous water movements and barrier function in the newly exposed skin. In contrast, infected frogs did not show this post-sloughing increase in AQP gene expression. The combination of increased sloughing frequency, impaired water uptake rates and increased rates of water loss likely contributes to the loss of osmotic homeostasis in frogs infected with Bd.
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- Dealer's Dytonia (Croupier's Cramp) - An Unusual Hazard Of Gambling. [Journal Article]
- AMAcute Med 2019; 18(2):124-126
- Dystonia takes many forms and often presents acutely to emergency care. The diagnosis is often delayed because it mimics other more common conditions. This report describes a patient with a rare occu…
Dystonia takes many forms and often presents acutely to emergency care. The diagnosis is often delayed because it mimics other more common conditions. This report describes a patient with a rare occupational dystonia, the typical clinical features of dystonia in general, and differentials to consider.