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1,160 results
  • Blood parasites in vectors reveal a united blackfly community in the upper canopy. [Journal Article]
    Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jun 15; 13(1):309.Chakarov N, Kampen H, … Bensch S
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Leucocytozoon clade infecting thrushes, crows, and pigeons present in most represented blackfly species suggests a lack of association between hosts and blackflies, which can increase the probability of host switches of blood parasites. However, the composition of the simuliid species differed between nests of common buzzards, goshawks and red kites. This segregation can be explained by coinciding habitat preferences between host and vector, and may lead to the fast speciation of Leucocytozoon parasites. Thus, subtle ecological preferences and lack of host preference of vectors in the canopy may enable both parasite diversification and host switches, and enforce a habitat-dependent evolution of avian malaria parasites and related haemosporidia.
  • Azure-winged magpies fail to understand the principle of mirror imaging. [Journal Article]
    Behav Processes. 2020 Aug; 177:104155.Wang L, Luo Y, … Li Z
  • Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is considered a crucial step in the emergence of self-cognition. The MSR paradigm has become a standard method for evaluating self-cognition in several species. For example, Eurasian magpies and Indian house crows have passed the mark test for self-cognition, whereas efforts to find MSR in other corvid species have failed. However, no literature has conducted MSR tes…
  • Extended parenting and the evolution of cognition. [Journal Article]
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jul 20; 375(1803):20190495.Uomini N, Fairlie J, … Griesser M
  • Traditional attempts to understand the evolution of human cognition compare humans with other primates. This research showed that relative brain size covaries with cognitive skills, while adaptations that buffer the developmental and energetic costs of large brains (e.g. allomaternal care), and ecological or social benefits of cognitive abilities, are critical for their evolution. To understand t…
  • Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) fail the mirror mark test yet again. [Journal Article]
    J Comp Psychol. 2020 May 28 [Online ahead of print]Brecht KF, Müller J, Nieder A
  • The mirror mark test is generally considered to be an indicator of an animal's ability to recognize itself in the mirror. For this test, an animal is confronted with a mirror and has a mark placed where it can see the mark only with the help of the mirror. When the animal extensively touches or interacts with the mark, compared with control conditions, the mirror mark test is passed. Many nonhuma…
  • Implementation and quality assessment of a clinical orthopaedic registry in a public hospital department. [Journal Article]
    BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 May 09; 20(1):393.Lee B, Ebrahimi M, … Bell C
  • CONCLUSIONS: A novel method to assess data quality in a clinical orthopaedic registry identified process shortfalls and improved data quality over time. Real-time communication, a comprehensive data framework and an integrated feedback loop were necessary to ensure adequate quality assurance. This model can be replicated in other registries and serve as a useful quality control tool to improve registry quality and ensure applicability of the data to aid clinical decisions, especially in newly implemented registries.
  • Toxicity evaluation of pesticide chlorpyrifos in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). [Journal Article]
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Apr 28 [Online ahead of print]Suliman , Khan A, … Zahoor M
  • In the current study, chlorpyrifos was used as a test chemical to evaluate its possible toxicological effect on birds. A total of 45 adult male Japanese quails were divided into five groups (A to E). Each group, containing 9 birds was further divided into 3 sub-groups (containing 3 birds each). Group A served as control, while all other groups and sub-groups were exposed to selected pesticide for…
  • Investigating information seeking in ravens (Corvus corax). [Journal Article]
    Anim Cogn. 2020 Mar 21 [Online ahead of print]Lambert ML, Osvath M
  • Measuring the responses of non-human animals to situations of uncertainty is thought to shed light on an animal's metacognitive processes; namely, whether they monitor their own knowledge states. For example, when presented with a foraging task, great apes and macaques selectively seek information about the location of a food item when they have not seen where it was hidden, compared to when they…
  • Culicoides species composition and molecular identification of host blood meals at two zoos in the UK. [Journal Article]
    Parasit Vectors. 2020 Mar 16; 13(1):139.England ME, Pearce-Kelly P, … Carpenter S
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly confirm blood-feeding of Culicoides on exotic zoo animals in the UK and shows that they are able to utilise a wide range of exotic as well as native host species. Due to the susceptibility of some zoo animals to Culicoides-borne arboviruses, this study demonstrates that in the event of an outbreak of one of these viruses in the UK, preventative and mitigating measures would need to be taken.
  • Crows control working memory before and after stimulus encoding. [Journal Article]
    Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 24; 10(1):3253.Fongaro E, Rose J
  • The capacity of working memory is limited and this limit is comparable in crows and primates. To maximize this resource, humans use attention to select only relevant information for maintenance. Interestingly, attention-cues are effective not only before but also after the presentation of to-be-remembered stimuli, highlighting control mechanisms beyond sensory selection. Here we explore if crows …
  • Brain activity underlying American crow processing of encounters with dead conspecifics. [Journal Article]
    Behav Brain Res. 2020 May 15; 385:112546.Swift KN, Marzluff JM, … Cross DJ
  • Animals utilize a variety of auditory and visual cues to navigate the landscape of fear. For some species, including corvids, dead conspecifics appear to act as one such visual cue of danger, and prompt alarm calling by attending conspecifics. Which brain regions mediate responses to dead conspecifics, and how this compares to other threats, has so far only been speculative. Using 18F-fluorodeoxy…
  • Cryptic and extensive hybridization between ancient lineages of American crows. [Journal Article]
    Mol Ecol. 2020 Mar; 29(5):956-969.Slager DL, Epperly KL, … Klicka J
  • Most species and therefore most hybrid zones have historically been defined using phenotypic characters. However, both speciation and hybridization can occur with negligible morphological differentiation. Recently developed genomic tools provide the means to better understand cryptic speciation and hybridization. The Northwestern Crow (Corvus caurinus) and American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) ar…
  • Pathogenicity of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in rooks (Corvus frugilegus). [Journal Article]
    Avian Pathol. 2020 Jun; 49(3):261-267.Soda K, Tomioka Y, … Ito T
  • Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) are considered migratory crows in Japan. Some rooks share a wintering site in the Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture with hooded cranes (Grus monacha) and white-necked cranes (Grus vipio), which are designated as "endangered" in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), caused by H…
  • Experimental pathology of two highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses isolated from crows in BALB/c mice. [Journal Article]
    Microb Pathog. 2020 Apr; 141:103984.Kombiah S, Kumar M, … Singh VP
  • In this study, we assessed the pathogenicity of two H5N1 viruses isolated from crows in mice. Eighteen 6-8 weeks BALB/c mice each were intranasally inoculated with 106 EID50/ml of H5N1 viruses A/crow/India/03CA04/2015 (H9N2-PB2 reassortant H5N1) and A/crow/India/02CA01/2012 (Non-reassortant H5N1). The infected mice showed dullness, weight loss and ruffled fur coat. Histopathological examination o…
  • Why do zoos attract crows? A comparative study from Europe and Asia. [Journal Article]
    Ecol Evol. 2019 Dec; 9(24):14465-14475.Kövér L, Lengyel S, … Schwab C
  • Crows have successfully colonized many cities, and urban zoos have been important in this process. To evaluate why zoos attract crows, we quantified crow numbers and behavior in three zoos in Europe (Debrecen, Edinburgh, Vienna) and one in Asia (Sapporo). Data were collected in 445 surveys over 297 days in summer 2014 and winter 2014-2015. We found that crow numbers were highest in Vienna, interm…
  • The first pterosaur basihyal, shedding light on the evolution and function of pterosaur hyoid apparatuses. [Journal Article]
    PeerJ. 2020; 8:e8292.Jiang S, Li Z, … Wang X
  • The pterosaur is the first known vertebrate clade to achieve powered flight. Its hyoid apparatus shows a simplification similar to that of birds, although samples of the apparatus are rare, limiting the ability to make an accurate determination. In this study we reveal a new pterosaur specimen, including the first definite basihyal. Through the comparison of pterosaur hyoids, a trend has been dis…
  • Acoustic localization of crows in pre-roost aggregations. [Journal Article]
    J Acoust Soc Am. 2019 12; 146(6):4664.Abadi SH, Wacker DW, … Flett D
  • Crows are highly intelligent and social creatures. Each night during the non-breeding period, they gather on large pre-roost aggregations as they move towards their communal roost where they sleep. Crows make numerous and varied vocalizations on these pre-roost aggregations, but the purpose of these calls, and vocal communication in general, in these pre-roost aggregations is not fully understood…
  • Interaction and innovation: practical strategies for inclusive consumer-driven research in health services. [Journal Article]
    BMJ Open. 2019 12 16; 9(12):e031555.Dahm MR, Brown A, … Georgiou A
  • CONCLUSIONS: Enhancing consumer contribution and establishing inclusive research design requires a negotiated, interactive, meaningful and transparent process. As a collaborative approach, consumer-driven research involvement offers opportunities for new, often unexpected or unexplored perspectives to feature across the whole research process. In a move away from tokenistic consumer involvement, consumers and researchers who participated in this novel and immersive research project identified inclusive research as a powerful tool to enhance health services research and its translation into effective policy.
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