- Suscepibility of Anopheles gambiae sl and Culex quinquefasciatus to diverse insecticides in the city of N'Djamena. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sante Trop 2018 May 01; 28(2):154-157
- Mosquito resistance to insecticides remains a major concern for vector control programs based on chemical methods. Hence, a thorough knowledge of vector susceptibility to products recommended for pub…
Mosquito resistance to insecticides remains a major concern for vector control programs based on chemical methods. Hence, a thorough knowledge of vector susceptibility to products recommended for public health is required for effective vector control programs. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of wild Anopheles gambiae sl and Culex quinquefasciatus populations from N'Djamena (Chad) to four insecticide classes recommended for public health. The study took place from July to October 2014. Following WHO guidelines, bioassays were performed on two- to four-day-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes of both species, collected in the field. The insecticides used were deltamethrin (0.05%), permethrin (1%), DDT (4%), bendiocarb (0.01%), and malathion (5%). Anopheles gambiae sl showed full susceptibility to bendiocarb and malathion but was resistant to pyrethroids; mortality rates were 2% for deltamethrin, 2% for permethrin, and 0% for DDT. Culex quinquefasciatus was susceptible to malathion but resistant to the other insecticides, with a mortality rate of 22% for deltamethrin, 29% for permethrin, 23% for DDT, and 45% bendiocarb. The resistance of Anopheles gambiae sl and of Culex quinquefasciatus may affect the population's adherence to the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets. Malaria control programs are advised to extend insecticide resistance monitoring to the main culicide species that bite human populations.
- Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2011; 108(5):1253-63
- In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal …
In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal activity against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values of all the extracts in different solvents of both the plants were less than 50 ppm (15.40-38.50 ppm) against all tested larval instars. Plant extracts also affected the life cycle of A. aegypti by inhibition of pupal development and adult emergence with increasing concentrations. The larvicidal stability of the extracts at five constant temperatures (19°C, 22°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C) evaluated against fourth instar larvae revealed that toxicity of both plant extracts increases with increase in temperature. Toxicity studies carried out against fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common nontarget organism in the habitats of A. aegypti, showed almost nil to meager toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the plant extracts. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts of P. Zeylanica and C. nocturnum revealed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with predominance of plumbagin in P. zeylanica and saponins in C. nocturnum. Partially purified plumbagin from P. zeylanica and saponins from C. nocturnum were obtained, and their presence was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and biochemical tests. The bioassay experiment of partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larval form. Therefore, this study explored the safer and effective potential of plant extracts against vector responsible for diseases of public health importance.
- [Distribution of the main species of medically important Culicidae on the Isle of Youth]. [Journal Article]
- RCRev Cubana Med Trop 1989 May-Aug; 41(2):200-7
- The distribution of the main culicide species of medical significance in the Isle of Youth is determined, and an assessment of the major areas of influence of these species as well as future prospect…
The distribution of the main culicide species of medical significance in the Isle of Youth is determined, and an assessment of the major areas of influence of these species as well as future prospects is made. Twenty-seven culicide species from 8 genera--19 of which are reported as medically significant in the literature--are found. By way of conclusion recommendations for vector control in the Isle of Youth are provided.
- [Culicide collection in Country Basic Secondary Schools (ESBECS) for foreigners on the Isla de la Juventud. Preliminary study]. [Journal Article]
- RCRev Cubana Med Trop 1984 Jan-Apr; 36(1):59-62