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111 results
  • Ecological, behavioral, and phylogenetic influences on the evolution of dorsal color pattern in geckos. [Journal Article]
    Evolution. 2020 Jun; 74(6):1033-1047.Allen WL, Moreno N, … Chiari Y
  • The dorsal surfaces of many taxonomic groups often feature repetitive pattern elements consisting of stripes, spots, or bands. Here, we investigate how distinct categories of camouflage pattern work by relating them to ecological and behavioral traits in 439 species of gecko. We use phylogenetic comparative methods to test outstanding hypotheses based on camouflage theory and research in other ta…
  • Laser Safety Calculations for Imaging Sensors. [Journal Article]
    Sensors (Basel). 2019 Aug 30; 19(17)Ritt G
  • This publication presents an approach to adapt the well-known classical eye-related concept of laser safety calculations on camera sensors as general as possible. The difficulty in this approach is that sensors, in contrast to the human eye, consist of a variety of combinations of optics and detectors. Laser safety calculations related to the human eye target terms like Maximum Permissible Exposu…
  • Bilateral Phacoemulsification in an African Elephant (Loxodonta africana). [Case Reports]
    Case Rep Vet Med. 2019; 2019:2506263.Cerreta AJ, McMullen RJ, … Minter LJ
  • A 37-year-old bull African elephant (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo (NCZ) was diagnosed with bilateral cataracts leading to behavioral changes and significant weight loss secondary to functional blindness. On initial examination, a weight loss of 234 kg, a mature cataract in the right eye, and a focal cataract in the left eye were diagnosed. Ultrasound and electroretinography (ERG)…
  • Involvement of plasma miRNAs, muscle miRNAs and mitochondrial miRNAs in the pathophysiology of frailty. [Review]
    Exp Gerontol. 2019 09; 124:110637.Rusanova I, Fernández-Martínez J, … Acuña-Castroviejo D
  • Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that leads not only to the loss of physical functions, but also to a generalized decline of the organism and a high risk of disability and dependency. Frailty's detection and management represent important goals for current gerontology. The advance in its rapid diagnosis could play a relevant role in taking measures to reduce the negative consequences it exerts on …
  • Orbital paraganglioma in a dog. [Journal Article]
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2018 Dec; 46(6):410-415.Fischer MC, Taeymans ON, … Busse C
  • A 10-year-old Rottweiler presented with right-sided moderately painful exophthalmia, blindness, absence of dazzle and pupillary light reflexes, a swollen optic nerve head and ventrolateral indentation of the globe. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 3 x 2 x 2 cm mass with a fluid filled center and contrast-enhancing periphery was noted posteriolateral of the globe. Orbital ultrasound was used for a…
  • Impact of windscreen scatter on laser eye dazzle. [Journal Article]
    Opt Express. 2018 Oct 15; 26(21):27033-27057.Williamson CA, McLin LN, … Smith PA
  • This study investigates the extent to which a windscreen affects the severity of laser eye dazzle (disability glare produced by a laser) experienced by a human observer. Windscreen scatter measurements were taken for a range of windscreens in a variety of conditions, showing that windscreen scatter is similar in magnitude to scatter from the human eye. Human subject experiments verified that obsc…
  • Grab my tail: evolution of dazzle stripes and colourful tails in lizards. [Journal Article]
    J Evol Biol. 2018 11; 31(11):1675-1688.Murali G, Merilaita S, Kodandaramaiah U
  • Understanding the functions of animal coloration has been a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. For example, the widespread occurrence of striking longitudinal stripes and colourful tails in lizards begs for an explanation. Experiments have suggested that colourful tails can deflect attacks towards the tail (the 'deflection' hypothesis), which is sacrificable in most lizards, thereby …
  • Anuran predators overcome visual illusion: dazzle coloration does not protect moving prey. [Journal Article]
    Anim Cogn. 2018 Sep; 21(5):729-733.Zlotnik S, Darnell GM, Bernal XE
  • Predators everywhere impose strong selection pressures on the morphology and behavior of their prey, but the resulting antipredator adaptations vary greatly among species. Studies of adaptive coloration in prey species have generally focused on cryptic or aposematic prey, with little consideration of color patterns in palatable mobile prey. Complex color patterns have been proposed to decrease th…
  • Wavelength and ambient luminance dependence of laser eye dazzle. [Journal Article]
    Appl Opt. 2017 Oct 10; 56(29):8135-8147.Williamson CA, McLin LN, … Smith PA
  • A series of experiments has been conducted to quantify the effects of laser wavelength and ambient luminance on the severity of laser eye dazzle experienced by human subjects. Eight laser wavelengths in the visible spectrum were used (458-647 nm) across a wide range of ambient luminance conditions (0.1-10,000 cd·m-2). Subjects were exposed to laser irradiance levels up to 600 μW·cm-2 and were ask…
  • Azidothymidine-triphosphate impairs mitochondrial dynamics by disrupting the quality control system. [Journal Article]
    Redox Biol. 2017 10; 13:407-417.Nomura R, Sato T, … Yanagisawa T
  • Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) has been used to block the progression and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although it decreases morbidity and mortality, clinical use of HAART has also been linked to various adverse effects such as severe cardiomyopathy resulting from compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, the mechanistic basis for these effects remains …
  • Diverted by dazzle: perceived movement direction is biased by target pattern orientation. [Journal Article]
    Proc Biol Sci. 2017 Mar 15; 284(1850)Hughes AE, Jones C, … Tolhurst DJ
  • 'Motion dazzle' is the hypothesis that predators may misjudge the speed or direction of moving prey which have high-contrast patterning, such as stripes. However, there is currently little experimental evidence that such patterns cause visual illusions. Here, observers binocularly tracked a Gabor target, moving with a linear trajectory randomly chosen within 18° of the horizontal. This target the…
  • Unravelling the illusion of flicker fusion. [Review]
    Biol Lett. 2017 02; 13(2)Umeton D, Read JC, Rowe C
  • For over 150 years, researchers have investigated the anti-predator function of animal patterns. However, this work has mainly focused on when prey remain still, and has only recently started to incorporate motion into the study of defensive coloration. As motion breaks camouflage, a new challenge is to understand how prey avoid predators while moving around their environment, and if a moving pre…
  • Dazzle camouflage and the confusion effect: the influence of varying speed on target tracking. [Journal Article]
    Anim Behav. 2017 Jan; 123:349-353.Hogan BG, Cuthill IC, Scott-Samuel NE
  • The formation of groups is a common strategy to avoid predation in animals, and recent research has indicated that there may be interactions between some forms of defensive coloration, notably high-contrast 'dazzle camouflage', and one of the proposed benefits of grouping: the confusion effect. However, research into the benefits of dazzle camouflage has largely used targets moving with constant …
  • Dazzle camouflage, target tracking, and the confusion effect. [Journal Article]
    Behav Ecol. 2016 Sep-Oct; 27(5):1547-1551.Hogan BG, Cuthill IC, Scott-Samuel NE
  • The influence of coloration on the ecology and evolution of moving animals in groups is poorly understood. Animals in groups benefit from the "confusion effect," where predator attack success is reduced with increasing group size or density. This is thought to be due to a sensory bottleneck: an increase in the difficulty of tracking one object among many. Motion dazzle camouflage has been hypothe…
  • Contrast, contours and the confusion effect in dazzle camouflage. [Journal Article]
    R Soc Open Sci. 2016 Jul; 3(7):160180.Hogan BG, Scott-Samuel NE, Cuthill IC
  • 'Motion dazzle camouflage' is the name for the putative effects of highly conspicuous, often repetitive or complex, patterns on parameters important in prey capture, such as the perception of speed, direction and identity. Research into motion dazzle camouflage is increasing our understanding of the interactions between visual tracking, the confusion effect and defensive coloration. However, ther…
  • Prehospital Endotracheal Intubation in Warm Climates: Caution is Required. [Case Reports]
    J Emerg Med. 2016 Sep; 51(3):262-4.Daniel Y, Habas S, Cruc M
  • Out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation is a frequent procedure for trauma care. Nevertheless, in warm climates, sunlight and heat can interfere with the flow of the usual procedure. They can affect the equipment and hinder the operator. There are few data on this issue. The presentation of this case highlights three common complications that may occur when intubating under a hot and bright sun.
  • Dynamic Dazzle Distorts Speed Perception. [Journal Article]
    PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155162.Hall JR, Cuthill IC, … Scott-Samuel NE
  • Static high contrast ('dazzle') patterns, such as zigzags, have been shown to reduce the perceived speed of an object. It has not escaped our notice that this effect has possible military applications and here we report a series of experiments on humans, designed to establish whether dynamic dazzle patterns can cause distortions of perceived speed sufficient to provide effective defence in the fi…
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