- Involvement of plasma miRNAs, muscle miRNAs and mitochondrial miRNAs in the pathophysiology of frailty. [Review]
- EGExp Gerontol 2019 Jun 12; 124:110637
- Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that leads not only to the loss of physical functions, but also to a generalized decline of the organism and a high risk of disability and dependency. Frailty's detect…
Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that leads not only to the loss of physical functions, but also to a generalized decline of the organism and a high risk of disability and dependency. Frailty's detection and management represent important goals for current gerontology. The advance in its rapid diagnosis could play a relevant role in taking measures to reduce the negative consequences it exerts on the body and to take preventive measures. microRNAs are the one of multiple epigenetic biomarkers that reflect functional changes in aged subject. In this review we analyze microRNAs as molecules involved in the control of the pathways leading to the development of frailty. miRNAs can be present in different body fluids, including plasma/serum and saliva, can be associated with organelles like the mitochondria, and can be expressed in tissues. Based on the multifactorial physiopathology of frailty, we analyzed here the microRNAs linked to "inflammaging" (inflamma-miRs), to musculoskeletal health (myomiRs), and microRNAs that can directly or indirectly affect the mitochondria (mitomiRs). Subsequently, we analyze those microRNAs that can be modified by physical exercise. In this review we will analyze the latest experimental studies carried out in animals, cell cultures, and human samples, with the aim to identify gaps in the research and in order to try to dazzle the information about the pathways regulated by each miRNA. Multiple studies revised here suggest that several miRs can be considered as possible markers of frailty, including miR-1, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-185, and miR-206, miR-223, among others. Normalization of miRNAs data and standardization of the protocols used for their measurement to avoid confounding variables influencing the results, are important to use miRNAs as disease biomarkers.
- Visual outcome following phacoemulsification in English Cocker Spaniels with suspected progressive retinal atrophy: A retrospective multicenter study of 54 cases (2002-2017). [Journal Article]
- VOVet Ophthalmol 2019 Jan 31
- CONCLUSIONS: English Cocker Spaniels with suspected PRA may benefit from phacoemulsification with vision up to 2 years following surgery.
- Orbital paraganglioma in a dog. [Journal Article]
- TPTierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2018; 46(6):410-415
- A 10-year-old Rottweiler presented with right-sided moderately painful exophthalmia, blindness, absence of dazzle and pupillary light reflexes, a swollen optic nerve head and ventrolateral indentatio…
A 10-year-old Rottweiler presented with right-sided moderately painful exophthalmia, blindness, absence of dazzle and pupillary light reflexes, a swollen optic nerve head and ventrolateral indentation of the globe. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 3 x 2 x 2 cm mass with a fluid filled center and contrast-enhancing periphery was noted posteriolateral of the globe. Orbital ultrasound was used for a guided fine needle aspirate of the mass. Cytology revealed moderate numbers of polygonal cells with lightly basophilic cytoplasm. Several cells showed nuclear pseudoinclusions. Histopathology following exenteration of the orbit revealed an infiltrative, extradural neoplasm surrounding the optic nerve. Cells were arranged in packets. Neoplastic cells were immunopositive for neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin A and immunonegative for cytokeratin. Findings were consistent with an extra-adrenal paraganglioma (neuroendocrine tumour). Although complete excision could not be confirmed on histopathology, the owners reported no apparent tumour recurrence 25 months after surgery. In conclusion a paraganglioma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of an orbital mass.
- Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Active Constituents in a Polyherbal Ointment by Gas Chromatography. [Journal Article]
- JAJ AOAC Int 2019 Jul 01; 102(4):1027-1032
- CONCLUSIONS: The developed GC method is simple, precise, and accurate, it and can be used for the rapid quality control testing of the polyherbal formulation. Highlights: The developed GC method will assist in the standardization of polyherbal analgesic formulation consists of α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate as active constituents.
- Impact of windscreen scatter on laser eye dazzle. [Journal Article]
- OEOpt Express 2018 Oct 15; 26(21):27033-27057
- This study investigates the extent to which a windscreen affects the severity of laser eye dazzle (disability glare produced by a laser) experienced by a human observer. Windscreen scatter measuremen…
This study investigates the extent to which a windscreen affects the severity of laser eye dazzle (disability glare produced by a laser) experienced by a human observer. Windscreen scatter measurements were taken for a range of windscreens in a variety of conditions, showing that windscreen scatter is similar in magnitude to scatter from the human eye. Human subject experiments verified that obscuration angles caused by laser eye dazzle could be increased by the presence of a windscreen when comparing a dirty automobile windscreen to an eye-only condition with a 532-nm laser exposure. However, a light aircraft windscreen with lower scatter did not exhibit increased obscuration angles at 532 nm, and neither windscreen exhibited an increase at 635 nm. A theoretical analysis of laser eye dazzle, using measured windscreen scatter functions, has provided insight into the delicate interplay between scatter, transmission and the angular extent of dazzle. A model based on this analysis has been shown to be a useful tool to predict the impact of windscreens on laser eye dazzle, with the goal of informing future updates to the authors' laser eye dazzle safety framework.
- Grab my tail: evolution of dazzle stripes and colourful tails in lizards. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Evol Biol 2018; 31(11):1675-1688
- Understanding the functions of animal coloration has been a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. For example, the widespread occurrence of striking longitudinal stripes and colourful tails…
Understanding the functions of animal coloration has been a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. For example, the widespread occurrence of striking longitudinal stripes and colourful tails in lizards begs for an explanation. Experiments have suggested that colourful tails can deflect attacks towards the tail (the 'deflection' hypothesis), which is sacrificable in most lizards, thereby increasing the chance of escape. Studies also suggest that in moving lizards, longitudinal body stripes can redirect predators' strikes towards the tail through the 'motion dazzle' effect. Despite these experimental studies, the ecological factors associated with the evolution of such striking colorations remain unexplored. Here, we investigated whether predictions from motion dazzle and attack deflection could explain the widespread occurrence of these striking marks using comparative methods and information on eco-physiological variables (caudal autotomy, diel activity, microhabitat and body temperature) potentially linked to their functioning. We found both longitudinal stripes and colourful tails are associated with diurnal activity and with the ability to lose the tail. Compared to stripeless species, striped species are more likely to be ground-dwelling and have higher body temperature, emphasizing the connection of stripes to mobility and rapid escape strategy. Colourful tails and stripes have evolved multiple times in a correlated fashion, suggesting that their functions may be linked. Overall, our results together with previous experimental studies support the notion that stripes and colourful tails in lizards may have protective functions based on deflective and motion dazzle effects.
- Anuran predators overcome visual illusion: dazzle coloration does not protect moving prey. [Journal Article]
- ACAnim Cogn 2018; 21(5):729-733
- Predators everywhere impose strong selection pressures on the morphology and behavior of their prey, but the resulting antipredator adaptations vary greatly among species. Studies of adaptive colorat…
Predators everywhere impose strong selection pressures on the morphology and behavior of their prey, but the resulting antipredator adaptations vary greatly among species. Studies of adaptive coloration in prey species have generally focused on cryptic or aposematic prey, with little consideration of color patterns in palatable mobile prey. Complex color patterns have been proposed to decrease the ability of visual predators to capture moving prey (motion dazzle effect). Most support for this hypothesis, however, comes from experiments with human subjects and simulated prey. We tested the motion dazzle effect using, for the first time, natural predators (cane toads, Rhinella marina) and live prey (house crickets, Acheta domesticus) with altered color patterns. We found no support for the motion dazzle effect as striped crickets did not fare better than solid colored ones. Crickets that spent more time moving, however, were more likely to be eaten. Our results suggest that motion specialized visual predators such as toads overcome the motion dazzle effect and impose stronger selection pressure on prey behavior than on coloration. These findings emphasize the importance of sensory specializations of predators in mediating antipredator strategies.
- Investigating the perception of Romanian adults on ophthalmology services from an experiential marketing perspective. [Journal Article]
- RJRom J Ophthalmol 2017 Jul-Sep; 61(3):181-187
- Nowadays, we live in a world in which we are daily bombed by hundreds of advertisements. Specialists have to discover other channels or embed attractive elements in the advertisements' messages to cu…
Nowadays, we live in a world in which we are daily bombed by hundreds of advertisements. Specialists have to discover other channels or embed attractive elements in the advertisements' messages to cut through the clutter and catch the consumers' attention. The evolution of the concept of service has changed from the commercial status to determining a lifestyle. Buying a service has led to a change in the consumer behavior. Consumers want to buy services that dazzle their senses, touch their hearts, and stimulate their minds, not as before, excellent or satisfying. Ophthalmology is the medical specialty that is the most oriented toward outpatient care, as hospitalization is required only in a small percentage of cases. The objective of this case study was to investigate the perception of Romanian adult consumers on ophthalmology services from an experiential marketing perspective, by using the Focus Group method. Ophthalmology requires a wide range of skills due to the diversity of consumers who demand specialized consultations. Experiential marketing is a valuable strategy that ophthalmologic organizations may use to target specific consumers. The purpose of this case study was to identify the perceptions of Romanian adults on experiential marketing campaigns and determine the degree to which these campaigns influenced their decisions of buying an ophthalmologic service. Using a snowball sampling technique we have sent a filter questionnaire to 40 people on the internet. The filter questionnaire consisted of questions about wearing eyeglasses, the period of wearing them, the last ophthalmologic consultation, the type of ophthalmologic clinic they were going to, age and education. The respondents revealed there is almost no visibility on promoting services even if there is an upsurge of organizations offering this type of health service in the Romanian ophthalmology sector.
- Effect of sedation with butorphanol on variables pertaining to the ophthalmic examination in dogs. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- VOVet Ophthalmol 2018; 21(5):452-458
- CONCLUSIONS: Butorphanol administered intramuscularly at 0.2 mg/kg provided a degree of sedation allowing eye examination, but was found to interfere with STT-1, PS, and IOP values among the diagnostic tests studied. However, these values remained within normal limits.
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- Wavelength and ambient luminance dependence of laser eye dazzle. [Journal Article]
- AOAppl Opt 2017 Oct 10; 56(29):8135-8147
- A series of experiments has been conducted to quantify the effects of laser wavelength and ambient luminance on the severity of laser eye dazzle experienced by human subjects. Eight laser wavelengths…
A series of experiments has been conducted to quantify the effects of laser wavelength and ambient luminance on the severity of laser eye dazzle experienced by human subjects. Eight laser wavelengths in the visible spectrum were used (458-647 nm) across a wide range of ambient luminance conditions (0.1-10,000 cd·m-2). Subjects were exposed to laser irradiance levels up to 600 μW·cm-2 and were asked to recognize the orientation of optotypes at varying eccentricities up to 31.6 deg of visual angle from the laser axis. More than 40,000 data points were collected from 14 subjects (ages 23-64), and these were consolidated into a series of obscuration angles for comparison to a theoretical model of laser eye dazzle. Scaling functions were derived to allow the model to predict the effects of laser dazzle on vision more accurately by including the effects of ambient luminance and laser wavelength. The updated model provides an improved match to observed laser eye dazzle effects across the full range of conditions assessed. The resulting model will find use in a variety of laser safety applications, including the estimation of maximum dazzle exposure and nominal ocular dazzle distance values.