- Diarylpropanes from Horsfieldia kingii. [Journal Article]
- NPNat Prod Res 2019 Jul 19; :1-7
- Three new diarylpropanes (1-3), including two diarylpropane glycosides, and three known ones, were isolated from 70% aqueous acetone extract of the twigs and leaves of Horsfieldia kingii. Their struc…
Three new diarylpropanes (1-3), including two diarylpropane glycosides, and three known ones, were isolated from 70% aqueous acetone extract of the twigs and leaves of Horsfieldia kingii. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Bioactive evaluation of inhibition on DDC enzyme assay showed that the new compounds were inactive.
- Spatiotemporal epidemiology, environmental correlates, and demography of malaria in Tak Province, Thailand (2012-2015). [Journal Article]
- MJMalar J 2019 Jul 16; 18(1):240
- CONCLUSIONS: There has been a large decline in reported clinical malaria from 2012 to 2015 in Tak Province. API was correlated with monthly climate and annual forest cover but these did not account for the trends over time. Ongoing elimination interventions on one or both sides of the border are more likely to have been the cause but it was not possible to assess this due to a lack of suitable data. Two main hot spot areas were identified that could be targeted for intensified elimination activities.
- Which Dopamine Polymorphisms Are Functional? Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of COMT, DAT, DBH, DDC, DRD1-5, MAOA, MAOB, TH, VMAT1, and VMAT2. [Journal Article]
- BPBiol Psychiatry 2019 May 28
- CONCLUSIONS: Some widely studied dopaminergic polymorphisms clearly and substantially affect the abundance or activity of the encoded gene product. However, for other polymorphisms, evidence of such an association is negative, inconclusive, or lacking. These findings are relevant when selecting polymorphisms as "markers" of dopamine function, and for interpreting the biological plausibility of associations between these polymorphisms and aspects of brain function or dysfunction.
- Assessment of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds in foodstuffs and estimates of daily intake from Lebanese population. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Jun 24; 235:492-497
- Dechlorane Related Compounds (DRCs), including Dechlorane Plus (syn/anti-DP or syn/anti-DDC-CO) and related compounds (Dec-601 or DDC-ID, Dec-602 or DDC-DBF, Dec-603 or DDC-Ant and Chlordene Plus or …
Dechlorane Related Compounds (DRCs), including Dechlorane Plus (syn/anti-DP or syn/anti-DDC-CO) and related compounds (Dec-601 or DDC-ID, Dec-602 or DDC-DBF, Dec-603 or DDC-Ant and Chlordene Plus or DDC-PDD), are a group of polychlorinated flame retardants of concern since they were first reported in various environmental and biota matrices about one decade ago. In this work, we investigated the dietary intake of the Lebanese population to these lipophilic environmental contaminants upon the evaluation of selected foodstuff contamination. Collected food samples (n = 58) were selected to be representative of the lipid fraction of the whole diet of the Beiruti population. The samples were analysed using pressurized liquid extraction, silica multilayer column followed by gel permeation chromatography for purification and GC-EI-HRMS for separation and detection. Detection frequency of at least one compound among Dechlorane Plus (syn-DP and anti-DP), Dechlorane 602, 603 and Chlordene Plus) was 91%. The mean concentrations of ∑6DRCs, by food group, ranged from 4.7 to 29.5 pg g-1 wet weight in lowerbound (LB) and from 6.7 to 76.9 pg g-1 wet weight in upperbound (UB). Based on food habits, the dietary intake of Beiruti adults was estimated to be between 3.71 (LB) and 5.61 (UB) ng day-1. Dechlorane Plus and Dechlorane 602 were the dominant compounds, contributing to 70 and 24% of the total intake (LB value), respectively. This study reports for the first time the occurrence of Dechloranes in Lebanese foods and proposes corresponding deterministic dietary exposure scenario.
- DNA double-strand breaks in telophase lead to coalescence between segregated sister chromatid loci. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 Jun 28; 10(1):2862
- DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) pose a high risk for genome integrity. Cells repair DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) when a sister chromatid is available. HR is upregulated by the cycling d…
DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) pose a high risk for genome integrity. Cells repair DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) when a sister chromatid is available. HR is upregulated by the cycling dependent kinase (CDK) despite the paradox of telophase, where CDK is high but a sister chromatid is not nearby. Here we study in the budding yeast the response to DSBs in telophase, and find they activate the DNA damage checkpoint (DDC), leading to a telophase-to-G1 delay. Outstandingly, we observe a partial reversion of sister chromatid segregation, which includes approximation of segregated material, de novo formation of anaphase bridges, and coalescence between sister loci. We finally show that DSBs promote a massive change in the dynamics of telophase microtubules (MTs), together with dephosphorylation and relocalization of kinesin-5 Cin8. We propose that chromosome segregation is not irreversible and that DSB repair using the sister chromatid is possible in telophase.
- Tumor Homing Reactive Oxygen Species Nanoparticle for Enhanced Cancer Therapy. [Journal Article]
- AAACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Jul 10; 11(27):23909-23918
- Multifunctional nanoparticles that carry chemotherapeutic agents can be innovative anticancer therapeutic options owing to their tumor-targeting ability and high drug-loading capacity. However, the n…
Multifunctional nanoparticles that carry chemotherapeutic agents can be innovative anticancer therapeutic options owing to their tumor-targeting ability and high drug-loading capacity. However, the nonspecific release of toxic DNA-intercalating anticancer drugs from the nanoparticles has significant side effects on healthy cells surrounding the tumors. Herein, we report a tumor homing reactive oxygen species nanoparticle (THoR-NP) platform that is highly effective and selective for ablating malignant tumors. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) were selected as an exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator and a superoxide dismutase 1 inhibitor, respectively. DDC-loaded THoR-NP, in combination with SNP treatment, eliminated multiple cancer cell lines effectively by the generation of peroxynitrite in the cells (>95% cell death), as compared to control drug treatments of the same concentration of DDC or SNP alone (0% cell death). Moreover, the magnetic core (ZnFe2O4) of the THoR-NP can specifically ablate tumor cells (breast cancer cells) via magnetic hyperthermia, in conjunction with DDC, even in the absence of any exogenous RS supplements. Finally, by incorporating iRGD peptide moieties in the THoR-NP, integrin-enriched cancer cells (malignant tumors, MDA-MB-231) were effectively and selectively killed, as opposed to nonmetastatic tumors (MCF-7), as confirmed in a mouse xenograft model. Hence, our strategy of using nanoparticles embedded with ROS-scavenger-inhibitor with an exogenous ROS supplement is highly selective and effective cancer therapy.
- Selective deletion of ENTPD1/CD39 in macrophages exacerbates biliary fibrosis in a mouse model of sclerosing cholangitis. [Journal Article]
- PSPurinergic Signal 2019 Jun 26
- Purinergic signaling is important in the activation and differentiation of macrophages, which play divergent roles in the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis. The ectonucleotidase CD39 is known to modu…
Purinergic signaling is important in the activation and differentiation of macrophages, which play divergent roles in the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis. The ectonucleotidase CD39 is known to modulate the immunoregulatory phenotype of macrophages, but whether this specifically impacts cholestatic liver injury is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of macrophage-expressed CD39 on the development of biliary injury and fibrosis in a mouse model of sclerosing cholangitis. Myeloid-specific CD39-deficient mice (LysMCreCd39fl/fl) were generated. Global CD39 null (Cd39-/-), wild-type (WT), LysMCreCd39fl/fl, and Cd39fl/fl control mice were exposed to 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) to induce biliary fibrosis. Hepatic hydroxyproline levels, liver histology, immunohistochemistry, mRNA expression levels, and serum biochemistry were then assessed. Following 3 weeks of DDC-feeding, Cd39-/- mice exhibited more severe fibrosis, when compared to WT mice as reflected by morphology and increased liver collagen content. Myeloid-specific CD39 deletion in LysMCreCd39fl/fl mice recapitulated the phenotype of global Cd39-/-, after exposure to DDC, and resulted in similar worsening of liver fibrosis when compared to Cd39fl/fl control animals. Further, DDC-treated LysMCreCd39fl/fl mice exhibited elevated serum levels of transaminases and total bilirubin, as well as increased hepatic expression of the profibrogenic genes Tgf-β1, Tnf-α, and α-Sma. However, no clear differences were observed in the expression of macrophage-elaborated specific cytokines between LysMCreCd39fl/fl and Cd39fl/fl animals subjected to biliary injury. Our results in the DDC-induced biliary type liver fibrosis model suggest that loss of CD39 expression on myeloid cells largely accounts for the exacerbated sclerosing cholangitis in global CD39 knockouts. These findings indicate that macrophage expressed CD39 protects from biliary liver injury and fibrosis and support a potential therapeutic target for human hepatobiliary diseases.
- KLF4 as a rheostat of osteolysis and osteogenesis in prostate tumors in the bone. [Journal Article]
- OOncogene 2019; 38(29):5766-5777
- We previously showed that KLF4, a gene highly expressed in murine prostate stem cells, blocks the progression of indolent intraepithelial prostatic lesions into aggressive and rapidly growing tumors.…
We previously showed that KLF4, a gene highly expressed in murine prostate stem cells, blocks the progression of indolent intraepithelial prostatic lesions into aggressive and rapidly growing tumors. Here, we show that the anti-tumorigenic effect of KLF4 extends to PC3 human prostate cancer cells growing in the bone. We compared KLF4 null cells with cells transduced with a DOX-inducible KLF4 expression system, and find KLF4 function inhibits PC3 growth in monolayer and soft agar cultures. Furthermore, KLF4 null cells proliferate rapidly, forming large, invasive, and osteolytic tumors when injected into mouse femurs, whereas KLF4 re-expression immediately after their intra-femoral inoculation blocks tumor development and preserves a normal bone architecture. KLF4 re-expression in established KLF4 null bone tumors inhibits their osteolytic effects, preventing bone fractures and inducing an osteogenic response with new bone formation. In addition to these profound biological changes, KLF4 also induces a transcriptional shift from an osteolytic program in KLF4 null cells to an osteogenic program. Importantly, bioinformatic analysis shows that genes regulated by KLF4 overlap significantly with those expressed in metastatic prostate cancer patients and in three individual cohorts with bone metastases, strengthening the clinical relevance of the findings in our xenograft model.
- In Situ Hybridization for Detecting Mature MicroRNAs In Vivo at Single-Cell Resolution. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Protoc Mol Biol 2019; 127(1):e93
- MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of cell and tissue development. However, spatial resolution of miRNA heterogeneity and accumulation patterns in vivo remains uncharted. Next-generation sequencin…
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of cell and tissue development. However, spatial resolution of miRNA heterogeneity and accumulation patterns in vivo remains uncharted. Next-generation sequencing methods assay miRNA abundance in tissues, yet these analyses do not provide spatial resolution. A method to assay miRNA expression at single-cell resolution in vivo should clarify the cell-autonomous functions of miRNAs, their roles in influencing the cellular microenvironment, and their perdurance and turnover rate. We present an in situ hybridization protocol to map miRNA subcellular expression in single cells in vivo in four days. Using this protocol, we mapped distinct miRNAs that accumulate in the cytoplasm of one sibling oocyte but not another, dependent on the oocyte developmental stage. Thus, this method provides spatial and temporal resolution of the heterogeneity in expression of miRNAs during Caenorhabditis elegans oogenesis. This protocol can generally be adapted to any tissue amenable to dissection and fixation. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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- Analysis of Expression and Functional Activity of Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (DDC) and Serotonin Transporter (SERT) as Potential Sources of Serotonin in Mouse Ovary. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jun 23; 20(12)
- The origin of serotonin in the ovary is the key question for understanding mechanisms of serotonergic regulation of reproductive function. We performed a study of the expression and functional activi…
The origin of serotonin in the ovary is the key question for understanding mechanisms of serotonergic regulation of reproductive function. We performed a study of the expression and functional activity of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) in mouse ovary. A pronounced peak of SERT mRNA expression occurs at the age of 14 days, but serotonin synthesis enzymes are expressed at the maximum level in the ovaries of newborn mice. SERT is detected immunohistochemically in all cellular compartments of the ovary with a maximum level of immunostaining in the oocytes of growing ovarian follicles. DDC immunolocalization, in contrast, is detected to a greater extent in primordial follicle oocytes, and decreases at the later stages of folliculogenesis. Serotonin synthesis in all cellular compartments occurs at very low levels, whereas specific serotonin uptake is clearly present, leading to a significant increase in serotonin content in the oocytes of growing primary and secondary follicles. These data indicate that the main mechanism of serotonin accumulation in mouse ovary is its uptake by the specific SERT membrane transporter, which is active in the oocytes of the growing ovarian follicles.