- Stable isotopes and chemical characteristics of precipitation in Hangzhou and Huzhou, East China. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 16
- Atmospheric precipitation is a very important link in the water cycle. The characteristics of major ions (n = 341) and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O; n = 157) were analysed in Hangzhou and Huzhou, which…
Atmospheric precipitation is a very important link in the water cycle. The characteristics of major ions (n = 341) and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O; n = 157) were analysed in Hangzhou and Huzhou, which are economically prosperous cities in East China. The δ2H and δ18O values of precipitation ranged from - 109.70 to 21.30‰ and from - 14.87 to - 0.95‰, respectively. Compared with the local meteoric water line (LMWL) of China, the slope and intercept of the LMWL were much higher in Hangzhou and Huzhou, which is related to the effects of the humid climate and less secondary evaporation. The δ2H and δ18O values were highest in spring because of the influence of air masses from the northern Asian continent and other nearby sources. In contrast, the air masses from the South China Sea and the western Pacific Ocean in the summer had the lowest δ2H and δ18O. The dominant ions in precipitation indicate that Ca2+, HCO3-, SO42-, NH4+ and NO3- are the main ions of precipitation in Hangzhou and Huzhou, and the dilution of precipitation leads to lower concentrations of ions in spring and summer, similar to the values found in most Chinese cities. The increase in motor vehicle use resulted in a lower [SO42-]/[NO3-] ratio (1.64) of precipitation, indicating mixed acid rain in Hangzhou and Huzhou (HZS). Based on a combination of the correlation analysis, enrichment factors and source contributions, we determined that SO42- and NO3- were introduced mainly from anthropogenic activities such as coal combustion and vehicle exhaust, accounting for 89% and 99%, respectively. The strong correlation between Cl- and Na+, as well as Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+, indicates that these ions commonly have marine and crustal origins, respectively, and 40% of Mg2+ comes from a marine source.
- Effect of the combination of a crosslinking agent and a thiourethane additive on the properties of acrylic denture bases processed with microwave energy. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2019 Jun 10; 98:90-95
- Thiourethane (TU) additives and difunctional, polymerizable crosslinking agents have been demonstrated to increase toughness in methacrylate-based materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the…
Thiourethane (TU) additives and difunctional, polymerizable crosslinking agents have been demonstrated to increase toughness in methacrylate-based materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential reinforcement of acrylic denture bases by combining thiourethane additives and 1,6 hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA) as an additional crosslinking agent. One commercial acrylic resin (Nature-Cryl MC; GC America) was tested by adding 0 (control) or 10 wt% TU, each of them combined with 0 (control), 10, 20 and 30 wt% HDDMA, for a total of 8 experimental groups. Materials were processed using microwave energy (500 W for 3 min) using microwave-safe molds and flasks. Flexural strength, modulus and toughness were obtained in 3-point bending (ISO 4049) using bars measuring 2 × 2x25 mm (n = 6). Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to determine glass transition temperature (Tg), breadth of tan delta (as a measure of polymer heterogeneity) and crosslinking density in 1 × 3x15 mm bars (n = 6) tested in tension, using a 3 °C/min heating rate (-30 to 180 °C). Viscosity samples were evaluated in a parallel plate reometer. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results showed that on the samples not containing TU, HDDMA up to 20 wt% increased the flexural strength and thoughness (and up to 30 wt% HDDMA increased the modulus). The addition of TU did not affect those properties (except for the increase in elastic modulus), but the combination TU + HDDMA led to decreased properties overall. The addition of HDDMA decreased the viscosity for all materials, and the presence of TU did not affect viscosity. The Tg increased linearly with the concentration of HDDMA, except in the groups containing TU - in general, the addition of TU reduced Tg. The crosslinking density increased with the addition of HDDMA for all materials, regardless of the presence of TU. The addition of TU significantly decreased crosslinking density. The breadth of tan delta was not affected by the addition of HDDMA, but significantly increased with the addition of TU. In conclusion, the chain-breaking effect of TU on polymerizing methacrylates was deleterious in the case of methyl methacrylate, since it forms a linear polymer. The addition of HDDMA up to 20 wt% and not combined with TU significantly improved the tested properties.
- Temporal trends of mercury differ across three northern white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) subpopulations. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jun 04; 687:77-86
- The spatiotemporal trends of mercury (Hg) are crucial for the understanding of this ubiquitous and toxic contaminant. However, uncertainties often arise from comparison among studies using different …
The spatiotemporal trends of mercury (Hg) are crucial for the understanding of this ubiquitous and toxic contaminant. However, uncertainties often arise from comparison among studies using different species, analytical and statistical methods. The long-term temporal trends of Hg exposure were reconstructed for a key sentinel species, the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). Body feathers were sampled from museum collections covering 150 years in time (from 1866 to 2015) from West Greenland (n = 124), Norway (n = 102), and Sweden (n = 87). A significant non-linear trend was observed in the Norwegian subpopulation, with a 60% increase in exposure occurring from 1866 to 1957 followed by a 40% decline until 2015. In the Swedish subpopulation, studied at a later period, the Hg exposure showed a drastic decline of 70% from 1967 to 2011. In contrast, no significant trend could be observed in the Greenland subpopulation. The additional analysis of dietary proxies (δ13C and δ15N) in general increased performance of the temporal trend models, but this was dependent on the subpopulation and study period. The downward trend of Hg coincided with the decreasing δ13C and δ15N in the Norwegian subpopulation, suggesting a potential dietary mitigation of Hg contamination. Hg exposure in both the Greenland and Norwegian subpopulations was consistently below the suggested threshold for adverse health effects (40.0 μg g-1), while the maximum exposure in the Swedish subpopulation was distinctively elevated (median: 46.0 μg g-1) and still remains well above natural background concentrations (maximum 5.0 μg g-1).
- Risk of Development of More-advanced Lesions in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Dysplasia. [Journal Article]
- CGClin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of pathology data from 7 medical centers in Belgium, we found a low rate of detection of more-advanced lesions following detection of LGD or HGD-taking into account that most of the lesions were removed. Main risk factors for development of more-advanced lesions after LGD were metachronous lesions, non-polypoid lesions, and colon strictures.
- Randomized Controlled Study of an Absorbable Vena Cava Filter in a Porcine Model. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vasc Interv Radiol 2019 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of the absorbable IVC filter in swine proved safe with no pulmonary emboli detected. There was complete to near-complete resorption of the filter polymer by 32 weeks with restoration of the normal appearance and structure of the IVC.
- Effect of fermented milk from Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris strain JFR1 on Salmonella invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2019 Jun 12
- The process of fermentation contributes to the organoleptic properties, preservation, and nutritional benefits of food. Fermented food may interfere with pathogen infections through a variety of mech…
The process of fermentation contributes to the organoleptic properties, preservation, and nutritional benefits of food. Fermented food may interfere with pathogen infections through a variety of mechanisms, including competitive exclusion or improving intestinal barrier integrity. In this study, the effect of milk fermented with Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris JFR1 on Salmonella invasion of intestinal epithelial cell cultures was investigated. Epithelial cells (HT29-MTX, Caco-2, and cocultures of the 2) were treated for 1 h with Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris JFR1 fermented milk before infection with Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica Typhimurium. Treatment with fermented milk resulted in increased transepithelial electrical resistance, which remained constant for the duration of infection (up to 3 h), illustrating a protective effect. After gentamicin treatment to remove adhered bacterial cells, enumeration revealed a reduction in numbers of intracellular Salmonella. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR data indicated a downregulation of Salmonella virulence genes hilA, invA, and sopD after treatment with fermented milk. Fermented milk treatment of epithelial cells also exhibited an immunomodulatory effect reducing the production of proinflammatory IL-8. In contrast, chemically acidified milk (glucono delta-lactone) failed to show the same effect on monolayer integrity, S. Typhimurium invasion, and gene expression as well as immune modulation. Furthermore, an oppA knockout mutant of S. Typhimurium infecting treated epithelial cells did not show suppressed virulence gene expression. Collectively, these results suggest that milk fermented with Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris JFR1 is effective in vitro in the reduction of Salmonella invasion into intestinal epithelial cells. A functional OppA permease in Salmonella is required to obtain the antivirulence effect of fermented milk.
- Assessment of Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042 as potential Salmonella surrogate for thermal treatments of toasted oats cereal and peanut butter. [Journal Article]
- FMFood Microbiol 2019; 83:187-192
- The control of Salmonella in low water activity foods poses a challenge for the food industry because of its thermal resistance. The use of surrogate bacteria in a food plant is considered a critical…
The control of Salmonella in low water activity foods poses a challenge for the food industry because of its thermal resistance. The use of surrogate bacteria in a food plant is considered a critical component to validate processing steps. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, a generally recognized as safe bacterium (GRAS), as potential surrogate for Salmonella in commercial toasted oats cereal (TOC) and peanut butter. P. acidilactici was compared to a five-serovar cocktail of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium NRRL-B2354, separately. Cultures were inoculated into TOC and thermal kinetic parameters (δ, β) were determined at 80, 85, 90, and 95 °C using the Weibull model. In peanut butter, δ and β parameters were obtained at 63, 68, 73, and 77 °C. In TOC, the δ values (initial decimal reduction time) of P. acidilactici were 63 and 7 min at 80 and 95 °C, respectively, and at all four temperatures they were not significantly different from δ values of E. faecium. The δ value of Salmonella at 80 °C (139 min) was two-fold greater than the other two bacteria's values (p < 0.05). In peanut butter, δ values of P. acidilactici ranged from 31 min at 63 °C to 2.6 min at 77 °C, and at all temperatures they were not significantly different from E. faecium's δ values. In peanut butter, all Salmonella cocktail's δ values were significantly smaller than P. acidilactici's with values of 2 min at 63 °C and 0.4 min at 77 °C. These results indicated that P. acidilactici was as heat tolerant as E. faecium in these food matrices. However, the thermal inactivation kinetic parameters suggested that P. acidilactici can only be considered a Salmonella surrogate in TOC at temperatures above 85 °C. Because of its greater thermal tolerance in peanut butter, P. acidilactici may be used as Salmonella surrogate if an additional safety factor is recommended.
- Effects of long term storage on secondary metabolite profiles of cannabis resin. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Int 2019 May 25; 301:331-340
- The structural identification and the monitoring of the relative concentrations of a wide range of major (3) and minor secondary (16) metabolites used as marker substances for profiling of cannabis r…
The structural identification and the monitoring of the relative concentrations of a wide range of major (3) and minor secondary (16) metabolites used as marker substances for profiling of cannabis resin using GC-FID at the Swedish National Forensic Centre (NFC) has facilitated the mapping of their chemical and physical behaviors over a period of 48months whilst stored under different conditions (exposure to light, exposure to air, temperature). In all cases the behavior of this group of sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenoids, cannabinoids and waxes could be directly related to their chemical lability/functionality. In particular, the identification of homologue triads for both Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) together with a group of seemingly chemically inert substances (for example, cannabicyclol(CBL) and the waxes (n-alkanes)) has created new tools for the establishment of common origins between samples of cannabis resins aged under different conditions. Since sampling of the resin blocks in NFC's method for profiling of cannabis resin is made below the surface, the effects of light incursion were found to be negligible. The effects of exposure to air (and indirectly temperature) were found to be more significant, not unexpectedly as many of the observed transformations were based on oxidation or rearrangement processes.
- Biotransformation and detoxification of the neonicotinoid insecticides nitenpyram and dinotefuran by Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 Jun 06; 252(Pt A):856-862
- Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used throughout the world over the last two decades. In the present study, we investigated the degradation of neonicotinoid insecticides nitenpyram (NIT) a…
Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used throughout the world over the last two decades. In the present study, we investigated the degradation of neonicotinoid insecticides nitenpyram (NIT) and dinotefuran (DIN) by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. While NIT was completely degraded by P. sordida YK-624 under ligninolytic conditions, only a 20% decrease was observed under nonligninolytic conditions. On the other hand, P. sordida YK-624 degraded 31% of DIN under ligninolytic conditions after a 20-day incubation, while it did not degrade DIN under nonligninolytic conditions. We found that cytochromes P450 played a key role in the biotransformation of NIT and DIN by P. sordida YK-624. A novel NIT metabolite (E)-N-((6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl)-N-ethyl-N'-hydroxy acetimidamide (CPMHA) and a novel DIN metabolite N-((4aS,7aS,E)-1-methylhexahydrofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-ylidene)nitramide (PHPF) were identified in this study. In addition, to evaluate neurotoxicity, the effects of NIT, DIN and their metabolites on the viability of human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y were determined. PHPF showed higher neurological toxicity than DIN, whereas the metabolite of NIT, CPMHA, showed no toxic effect. Our results indicated that the neurological toxicity of NIT could be effectively removed by P. sordida YK-624.
New Search Next
- Integrated assessment of health risk and climate effects of black carbon in the Pearl River Delta region, China. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2019 Jun 04; 176:108522
- CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates suggest that current levels of BC exposure in the PRD region posed a considerable risk to human health and the climate. Reduction of BC emission could lead to substantial health and climate co-benefits.