- Proteolytic extracts of three Bromeliaceae species as eco-compatible tools for leather industry. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018; 25(22):21459-21466
- Most tanneries use high proportions of Na2S and CaO during the dehairing step, resulting in effluents of high alkalinity and large amounts of suspended solid, besides the risk of liberating the toxic…
Most tanneries use high proportions of Na2S and CaO during the dehairing step, resulting in effluents of high alkalinity and large amounts of suspended solid, besides the risk of liberating the toxic H2S. Solid waste rich in protein is another environmental problem of tanneries. Enzymes are an interesting technological tool for industry due to their biodegradability, nontoxic nature, and nonpolluting effluent generation. In the leather industry, proteases have been chosen as a promising eco-friendly alternative to Na2S/CaO dehairing. Extracts with high proteolytic activity have been obtained from fruits of Bromeliaceae species: Bromelia balansae Mez (Bb), Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bh), and Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Pm). In this work, Bb, Bh, and Pm have been studied for application in the leather industry, focusing in their dehairing properties. Enzymatic activities were measured against collagen, keratin, elastin, and epidermis while a dehairing assay was performed by employing cowhide. All extracts showed similar activity on collagen and epidermis, while Bh and Pm were the most active against keratin at the same caseinolytic unit (CU) values; Bh was the only extract active against elastin. Bb (1 CU/ml), Bh (1.5 CU/ml), and Pm (0.5 CU/ml) were able to depilate cowhide. Desirable characteristics of dehairing were observed for all extracts since hair pores did not show residual hair, grain surface was clean and intact, and collagen fiber bundles of dermis were not damaged. In conclusion, results here presented show that proteolytic extracts of Bromeliaceae species are promising eco-compatible tools for leather industry.
- A metallo-keratinase from a newly isolated Acinetobacter sp. R-1 with low collagenase activity and its biotechnological application potential in leather industry. [Journal Article]
- BBBioprocess Biosyst Eng 2016; 39(1):193-204
- Microbial keratinase is a well-recognized enzyme that can specifically degrade insoluble keratins. A keratinase-producing bacterium was isolated from a duck ranch soil and identified as Acinetobacter…
Microbial keratinase is a well-recognized enzyme that can specifically degrade insoluble keratins. A keratinase-producing bacterium was isolated from a duck ranch soil and identified as Acinetobacter sp. R-1 based on the biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. It showed high keratinase activity and low collagenase activity. The keratinase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with 6.69% recovery, 2.68-fold purification and an estimated molecular weight of 25 kDa. Additionally, the keratinase showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH11. Keratinase activity of Acinetobacter sp. significantly increased in the presence of Li(+), Na(+), and Ca(2+), while it was completely inhibited by EDTA, indicating it was a metallo-keratinase. Moreover, the crude keratinase from Acinetobacter sp. R-1 could thoroughly depilate goat skin and simultaneously modify the wool surface, which indicated its applicable potential in leather and textile industries.
- Correlates of body depilation: an exploratory study into the health implications of body hair reduction and removal among college-aged men. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Mens Health 2014; 8(3):217-25
- Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the…
Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the documented evidence of the phenomenon split between mass media accounts and descriptive scientific investigations. This study was undertaken to further our understanding of this behavior by examining the relationship between depilation and other dimensions of body image in a nonclinical sample. A total of 364 men completed measures assessing self-reported hair growth, body depilation, drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, body dysmorphia, and social comparison. The correlates of body depilation included a drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, and physical appearance social comparison. Significant differences were identified among men who depilate, compared with those who do not, on measures of social comparison and a drive for muscularity. These findings lend support for the idea that body hair, and its reduction or removal, is a key aspect of men's body image that translates into some challenges in assessment and prevention among health care practitioners.
- Intense pulsed light for hairy grafts and flaps. [Journal Article]
- DSDermatol Surg 2002; 28(5):402-4
- CONCLUSIONS: IPL is an effective method to depilate hairy grafts and flaps.
- Clinical and cost comparison of three postoperative skin preparation protocols in CABG patients. [Journal Article]
- PCProg Cardiovasc Nurs 1996; 11(4):4-16
- This descriptive pilot study includes a clinical and cost comparison of three preoperative skin preparation protocols (razor, clipper, and depilatory cream, in combination with whole body disinfectio…
This descriptive pilot study includes a clinical and cost comparison of three preoperative skin preparation protocols (razor, clipper, and depilatory cream, in combination with whole body disinfection) in 82 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The clinical research protocol included an evaluation of body surface area, index of body hair growth, depilatory effect, skin integrity after depilation, and side effects of body disinfection with chlorhexidine solution, as well as protocol-specific evaluation criteria. The cost comparison was performed by keeping a record of the materials used and the workload for each separate activity associated with the three preoperative skin preparation protocols. Material and labor costs were calculated for each of the different aspects of the protocols. Clinical evaluation revealed that the clipper protocol (if necessary, in combination with cream depilation) is most convenient for depilation of patients with heavy hair growth. The depilatory cream protocol is an appropriate method to depilate patients with slight or moderate hair growth. The razor method should be eliminated from clinical practice due to previous documented evidence of an associated increased risk of postoperative wound infection. Cost calculations revealed that the median hospital cost (standardized for differences in hair growth index, working hours and nurse qualification levels) of the razor, clipper, and cream protocols is $6.13, $9.84, and $8.16 (U.S. dollars), respectively. In 1995, yearly raw (i.e. non-standardized) hospital costs for the three procedures were $14,402, $16,114, and $16,765, respectively, with 708 CABG procedures performed. Although changing to a clipper and/or cream protocol may be associated with an initial, although moderate, increase in hospital costs, compared to the razor method, substantial cost savings could be expected long-term. The superiority of these protocols is primarily due to a decreased incidence of postoperative wound infections, as compared to that associated with the razor protocol.
- Directed overexpression of suppressor 2 of zeste and Posterior Sex Combs results in bristle abnormalities in Drosophila melanogaster. [Journal Article]
- DBDev Biol 1994; 161(2):379-92
- Three dominant second-chromosome rearrangement mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, Aristapedioid1 (Arp), vestigial-Depilate (vgD), and vestigial62 (vg62), result in developmental abnormalities of t…
Three dominant second-chromosome rearrangement mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, Aristapedioid1 (Arp), vestigial-Depilate (vgD), and vestigial62 (vg62), result in developmental abnormalities of the bristle sense organs on the notum, abdomen, legs, and wing margin. The bristle abnormalities are associated with overexpression of Suppressor 2 of zeste (Su(z)2). We constructed and transformed into flies Hsp70:cDNA constructs for Su(z)2 and the related and neighboring Polycomb group (Pc-G) gene Posterior Sex Combs (Psc). Heat shock-induced overexpression of these two genes (hs-Su(z)2 and hs-Psc) resulted in similar bristle abnormalities that in a developmental stage-specific manner mimicked those seen with the three rearrangement mutations. In addition, hs-Psc overexpression at white prepupae was lethal. The bristle abnormalities are reminiscent of those seen with reduced function of Notch, a neurogenic gene. We found that hs-Su(z)2 overexpression reduced the expression of a lac z enhancer trap in the neurogenic gene neuralized. Previous experiments found that loss of function mutations in Su(z)2 resulted in no bristle abnormalities. Analysis of Psc mitotic clones revealed no essential function of Psc in bristle development. Antibody staining of salivary gland polytene chromosomes showed that after heat shock induction of hs-Psc, Psc protein binds ectopically to hundreds of polytene chromosome loci. These data suggest that the bristle abnormalities seen with overexpression of Su(z)2 and Psc may result from altered expression of genes involved in bristle sense organ development that are not normal regulatory targets of these genes.
- The use of high-energy electrons to depilate the breech of sheep. [Journal Article]
- AVAust Vet J 1990; 67(2):51-5
- The use of high-energy electrons for permanently depilating areas of sheep skin was evaluated. The most effective dose of electrons for depilation was 17.5Gy. Histological changes in skin treated at …
The use of high-energy electrons for permanently depilating areas of sheep skin was evaluated. The most effective dose of electrons for depilation was 17.5Gy. Histological changes in skin treated at this dose were examined in one sheep over 18 months and in 5 sheep over 89 d. Effects of treatment on bodyweight gains and fleece growth were examined by comparing the productivity of a further 5 sheep treated on the breech with high-energy electrons, with that of conventionally mulesed sheep (n = 5) and untreated controls (n = 5). Electron treatment resulted in immediate death of cells in the germinative region of the wool follicle bulbs. Within 10 d of treatment the treated areas were completely depilated. Wool follicle shafts in the treated areas regressed rapidly towards the epidermis and remained quiescent for the whole trial (89 d). A sheep treated 18 months previously has remained largely depilated, although a few sparse fibres are present. Epidermal acanthosis and orthokeratosis were present at 26 d after treatment. The thickened stratum corneum then sloughed off, but the epidermis remained acanthotic for the entire trial. Sweat glands and most sebaceous glands were destroyed by the treatment and were replaced by fibrotic, avascular tissue in the dermis. In all other respects the external appearance of the electron-treated breech was similar to that of mulesed sheep. There were no apparent side-effects of treatment. Neither mulesing nor electron treatment altered weight gains or fleece growth rates.
- Studies on gonococcus infection. V. Observations on in vitro interactions of gonococci and human neutrophils. [Journal Article]
- IIInfect Immun 1974; 10(3):633-44
- The association of in vitro human leukocytes with pilated, type 2 Neisseria gonorrhoeae exceeds that for nonpilated, type 4 organisms but is less than that for nonpilated, type 4(*) gonococci. The tw…
The association of in vitro human leukocytes with pilated, type 2 Neisseria gonorrhoeae exceeds that for nonpilated, type 4 organisms but is less than that for nonpilated, type 4(*) gonococci. The two nonpilated forms of gonococci (types 4 and 4(*)) attach to tissue culture cells to a much lesser extent than do pilated, type 2 organisms of the same strain. Trypsin treatment of either pilated (type 2) or nonpilated (type 4(*)) gonococci markedly reduces the attachment-ingestion of these organisms with leukocytes, but the same trypsin treatment does not depilate the type 2 organisms nor visibly alter the morphology of their pili. Similar reductions in association with leukocytes are found if the gonococci are pretreated with chymotrypsin, heat, or glutaraldehyde. High levels of association between gonococci and leukocytes are reestablished if the trypsin or chymotrypsin-treated organisms are reincubated in protease-free medium. These data suggest that interactions between gonococci and human neutrophils are mediated through surface characteristics of the bacteria, different from those which influence attachment of the organisms to tissue culture cells. In the latter instance, pili appear to positively influence gonococcal attachment, whereas in the former a nonpilus bacterial cell wall nonpilus protein is probably the major determiner in the interaction between leukocytes and gonococci.
- The Temperature Responses of Flies with the Deficiency Vestigial-Depilate in Drosophila Melanogaster. [Journal Article]
- GGenetics 1940; 25(5):521-33