- The effect of hyperglycinemic treatment in captive-bred Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). [Journal Article]
- MBMetab Brain Dis 2019 Jun 22
- Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a neuro-metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). A case of atypical late onset of NKH has …
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a neuro-metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). A case of atypical late onset of NKH has been reported in a colony of captive-bred Vervet monkeys. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan in reducing glycine levels in hyperglycinemic monkeys. Twelve captive-bred Vervet monkeys were assigned into three groups consisting of four animals (control, valproate induced and cataract with spontaneous hyperglycinemia). Valproate was used to elevate glycine levels and the induced group was then treated with sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan together with group three to normalise glycine levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. Valproate induction elicited changes in phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and platelet count, however, no significant changes in the glycine levels were observed, and this might be due to the individual variability within the group. The treatment intervention was only obtained in the spontaneous group whereby the glycine levels were normalised in CSF and plasma. Therefore, it can be concluded that sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan treatment was effective and beneficial to the hyperglycinemic group.
- Systematic review on analgesics and dexamethasone for post-tonsillectomy pain in adults. [Review]
- BJBr J Anaesth 2019 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Single analgesics and dexamethasone provide only a weak to moderate effect for post-tonsillectomy pain on the day of operation and thus a multimodal analgesic strategy is recommended. Short follow-up times and clinical heterogeneity of studies limit the usefulness of results.
- A novel and simple LC-MS/MS quantitative method for dextromethorphan and dextrorphan in oral fluid. [Journal Article]
- BBioanalysis 2019; 11(10):913-922
- CONCLUSIONS: This method may prove helpful for quantification of DT and DXM in oral fluid for either clinical or toxicological purposes.
- Study Protocol for a Pilot, Open-Label, Prospective, and Observational Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Administered to Patients during Extracorporeal Circulation; Potential of In Vivo Cytochrome P450 Phenotyping to Optimise Pharmacotherapy. [Journal Article]
- MPMethods Protoc 2019 May 13; 2(2)
- Pharmacokinetic alterations of medications administered during surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been reported. The impact of CPB on…
Pharmacokinetic alterations of medications administered during surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been reported. The impact of CPB on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes' activity is the key factor. The metabolic rates of caffeine, dextromethorphan, midazolam, omeprazole, and Losartan to the CYP-specific metabolites are validated measures of in vivo CYP 1A2, 2D6, 3A4, 2C19, and 2C9 activities, respectively. The study aim is to assess the activities of major CYPs in patients on extracorporeal circulation (EC). This is a pilot, prospective, open-label, observational study in patients undergoing surgery using EC and patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a control group. CYP activities will be measured on the day, and 1-2 days pre-surgery/3-4 days post-surgery (cardiac surgery and Laparoscopic cholecystectomy) and 1-2 days after starting ECMO, 1-2 weeks after starting ECMO, and 1-2 days after discontinuation from ECMO. Aforementioned CYP substrates will be administered to the patient and blood samples will be collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h post-dose. Major CYP enzymes' activities will be compared in each participant on the day, and before/after surgery. The CYP activities will be compared in three study groups to investigate the impact of CYPs on EC.
- Evaluation of brain SERT with 4-[18F]-ADAM/micro-PET and hearing protective effects of dextromethorphan in hearing loss rat model. [Journal Article]
- TAToxicol Appl Pharmacol 2019 May 30; :114604
- This study investigated the protective effects of dextromethorphan (DXM) on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in rats. This study aimed to improve the auditory threshold and to understand the protect…
This study investigated the protective effects of dextromethorphan (DXM) on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in rats. This study aimed to improve the auditory threshold and to understand the protective effects of DXM against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced neurite degeneration of serotonergic neurons. The animals were exposed to 8-kHz narrowband noise at a 118-dB sound pressure level for 3.5 h. The hearing thresholds were determined by measuring the auditory brainstem response to click stimuli. Serotonin transporter (SERT) expression was determined through micro-positron emission tomography (PET) using N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-18F-fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[18F]-ADAM). We also investigated the effects of DXM on NMDA-induced morphological changes in the primary cultures of rat serotonergic neurons. NIHL significantly improved after prophylactic treatment with DXM (p < .05). SERT density in DXM-treated rats was significantly higher than that in non-DXM-treated rats. Because prophylactic medication restored the NMDA-inhibited neurite length of serotonergic neurons and presented SERT density, DXM could be a potential agent in alleviating NIHL.
- Desferrioxamine and dextromethorphan combination exhibited synergistic effect and reversed the catalepsy behaviour in 6-hydroxydopamine hydroydopamine administered rats through regulating brain glutamate levels. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Pharmacol 2019 May 29
- CONCLUSIONS: The reversal of catalepsy behaviour represents the protective effect of above combination on dopamine neurons in striatum from 6-OHDA toxicity. The mechanism of DFO and DXM combination might be attributed through attenuation of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in neurons through ameliorating the reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with DFO and DXM combination could control the multiple events in the pathogenesis of PD.
- Effectiveness of antitussives, anticholinergics or honey versus usual care in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis: a study protocol of an open randomised clinical trial in primary care. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2019 May 16; 9(5):e028159
- Despite the frequent use of therapies in acute bronchitis, the evidence of their benefit is lacking, since only a few clinical trials have been published, with low sample sizes, poor methodological q…
Despite the frequent use of therapies in acute bronchitis, the evidence of their benefit is lacking, since only a few clinical trials have been published, with low sample sizes, poor methodological quality and mainly in children. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three symptomatic therapies (dextromethorphan, ipratropium or honey) associated with usual care and the usual care in adults with acute bronchitis.
- Modulation of CYP450 activities in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Journal Article]
- CPClin Pharmacol Ther 2019 May 17
- We conducted a comprehensive in vivo study evaluating the influence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on major CYP450 activities. These activities were assessed in 38 T2D and 35 non-T2D subjects after a singl…
We conducted a comprehensive in vivo study evaluating the influence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on major CYP450 activities. These activities were assessed in 38 T2D and 35 non-T2D subjects after a single oral administration of a cocktail of probe drugs: 100mg caffeine (CYP1A2), 100mg bupropion (CYP2B6), 250mg tolbutamide (CYP2C9), 20mg omeprazole (CYP2C19), 30mg dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), 2mg midazolam (CYP3As), and 250mg chlorzoxazone (alone) (CYP2E1). Mean metabolic activity for CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and CYP3A were decreased in T2D subjects by about 46%, 45% and 38% (p<0.01), respectively. CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 activities appeared slightly increased in diabetic subjects and no difference was observed for CYP2D6 or CYP2E1 activities. Several covariables such as inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-∝), genotypes, diabetes- and demographic-related factors were considered in our analyses. Our results indicate that low chronic inflammatory status associated with T2D modulates CYP450 activities in an isoform specific manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Dextromethorphan Analgesia in a Human Experimental Model of Hyperalgesia. [Journal Article]
- AAnesthesiology 2019 May 14
- CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that low-dose (30-mg) dextromethorphan is antihyperalgesic in humans on the areas of primary and secondary hyperalgesia and reverses peripheral and central neuronal sensitization. Because dextromethorphan had no intrinsic antinociceptive effect in acute pain on healthy skin, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor may need to be sensitized by pain for dextromethorphan to be effective.
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- Trends in potentially abused medications returned during medication take-back days. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2019 May 09
- CONCLUSIONS: The rate of potentially abused medications returned steadily rose over the period of the study. Heightened awareness and increased opportunities for proper disposal including the placement of permanent drug disposal locations may account for the decreased number of prescriptions returned following 2013.