- Hydrolyzed wheat gluten alleviates deoxynivalenol-induced intestinal injury by promoting intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation via upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mice. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2019 Jun 13; :110579
- Disintegration of the intestine caused by deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a fungal metabolite found in cereal grain-based human and animal diets, triggers severe intestinal inflammatory disease. Hydro…
Disintegration of the intestine caused by deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a fungal metabolite found in cereal grain-based human and animal diets, triggers severe intestinal inflammatory disease. Hydrolyzed wheat gluten (HWG) can promote the development of intestine. Therefore, HWG was administered orally to male mice on 1-14 days, and DON was administered to them on 4-11 days. Feed, water intake and body weight were recorded all over the experimental period. Blood samples were collected then the mice were sacrificed to collect the jejunum for crypt isolation and culture. The intestinal morphology was observed by electron microscopy, and Western blotting was used to investigate intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and differentiation, as well as the primary regulatory mechanism of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The results showed that HWG increased the average daily gain and average daily water intake of mice under DON-induced injury conditions, and increased the jejunum weight, villous height in the jejunum, and promoted jejunal crypt cell expansion. The DON-induced decrease in Wnt/β-catenin activity, the expression of Ki67, PCNA and KRT20 were rescued by HWG in the jejunum, crypt and enteroid, as well as the number of goblet cells and Paneth cells. Furthermore, HWG increased jejunum diamine oxidase (DAO) activity. In conclusion, HWG alleviates DON-induced intestinal injury by enhancing ISC proliferation and differentiation in a Wnt/β-catenin-dependent manner.
- Smartphone assisted immunodetection of HIV p24 antigen using reusable, centrifugal microchannel array chip. [Journal Article]
- TTalanta 2019 Oct 01; 203:83-89
- An integrated immunodetection platform employing a simple, reusable, centrifugal microchannel array chip and a smartphone as detection unit was developed. The applicability of the platform to the det…
An integrated immunodetection platform employing a simple, reusable, centrifugal microchannel array chip and a smartphone as detection unit was developed. The applicability of the platform to the detection of HIV p24 antigen was demonstrated. The microchip was made of polycarbonate and contained 4 × 8 zigzag microchannels. After the monoclonal antibody of HIV p24 was adsorbed onto the channel surfaces, HIV p24 was introduced into the microchannel to react with the antibody. A biotin linked polyclonal antibody was then brought in to react with HIV p24, and SP80 (containing streptavidin and horseradish peroxidase) was introduced to react with the biotin. Finally, a solution containing 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and other reagents was passed through the above channels, horseradish peroxidase catalyzed the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (to 3,3',5,5'- tetramethylbenzidine diamine) forming a dark color. The color intensity, indicating HIV p24 antigen quantity, was then photographed via a smartphone, and the color of each microchannel was processed via a computer to determine the HIV p24 antigen concentration. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs) of 0.17 ng/ml and 0.11 ng/ml were obtained for p24 antigen in a buffer solution and human serum, respectively. Channel washing/rinsing was implemented via a centrifugal force. An economic portable centrifugal device that could accommodate up to 4 microchips was assembled, and multi-step solution loading and rinsing involved in this sandwich immunoassay were performed conveniently. The microchip could be reused after a simple regeneration process. The low-cost polycarbonate microchip and centrifugal device together with the simple but efficient operation make the method a promising tool for HIV screening in resource limited areas.
- Phytoassessment of Vetiver grass enhanced with EDTA soil amendment grown in single and mixed heavy metal-contaminted soil. [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Monit Assess 2019 Jun 14; 191(7):434
- Over the years, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (EDTA) has been widely used for many purposes. However, there are inadequate phytoassessment studies conducted using EDTA in Vetiver grass. Hence, this …
Over the years, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (EDTA) has been widely used for many purposes. However, there are inadequate phytoassessment studies conducted using EDTA in Vetiver grass. Hence, this study evaluates the phytoassessment (growth performance, accumulation trends, and proficiency of metal uptake) of Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash in both single and mixed heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn)-disodium EDTA-enhanced contaminated soil. The plant growth, metal accumulation, and overall efficiency of metal uptake by different plant parts (lower root, upper root, lower tiller, and upper tiller) were thoroughly examined. The relative growth performance, metal tolerance, and phytoassessment of heavy metal in roots and tillers of Vetiver grass were examined. Metals in plants were measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) after acid digestion. The root-tiller (R/T) ratio, biological concentration factor (BCF), biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and metal uptake efficacy were used to estimate the potential of metal accumulation and translocation in Vetiver grass. All accumulation of heavy metals were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in both lower and upper roots and tillers of Vetiver grass for Cd + Pb + Cu + Zn + EDTA treatments as compared with the control. The single Zn + EDTA treatment accumulated the highest overall total amount of Zn (8068 ± 407 mg/kg) while the highest accumulation for Cu (1977 ± 293 mg/kg) and Pb (1096 ± 75 mg/kg) were recorded in the mixed Cd + Pb + Cu + Zn + EDTA treatment, respectively. Generally, the overall heavy metal accumulation trends of Vetiver grass were in the order of Zn >>> Cu > Pb >> Cd for all treatments. Furthermore, both upper roots and tillers of Vetiver grass recorded high tendency of accumulation for appreciably greater amounts of all heavy metals, regardless of single and/or mixed metal treatments. Thus, Vetiver grass can be recommended as a potential phytoextractor for all types of heavy metals, whereby its tillers will act as the sink for heavy metal accumulation in the presence of EDTA for all treatments.
- The Evaluation of Dentin Microhardness After Use of 17% EDTA, 17% EGTA, 10% Citric Acid, MTAD Used as Chelating Agents Combined With 2.5% Sodium Hypochlorite After Rotary Instrumentation: An In Vitro SEM Study. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Bioallied Sci 2019; 11(Suppl 2):S156-S163
- CONCLUSIONS: Irrigation regimen following the use of 2.5% NaOCl during instrumentation followed by application of 5-mL 17% EDTA solution for 1 min resulted in efficient smear layer removal and less decrease in dentin microhardness compared with 17% EGTA, 10% citric acid, and MTAD solution.
- Aminomethyl transfer (Mannich) reactions between an O-triethylsilylated hemiaminal and anilines, RnC6H5-nNH2 leading to new diamines, triamines, imines or 1,3,5-triazines dependent upon substituent R. [Journal Article]
- CChemistry 2019 Jun 13
- The reactions of the Mannich reagent Et3SiOCH2NMe2 (1) with a variety of anilines, mono-substituted RC6H4NH2, R = H, 4-CN, 4-NO2, 4-Ph, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-Me2N; R2C6H3NH2; di-substituted R2 = 3,5-(CH3)2,…
The reactions of the Mannich reagent Et3SiOCH2NMe2 (1) with a variety of anilines, mono-substituted RC6H4NH2, R = H, 4-CN, 4-NO2, 4-Ph, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-Me2N; R2C6H3NH2; di-substituted R2 = 3,5-(CH3)2, 3,5-(CF3)2; R3C6H2NH2; tri-substituted R3 = 3,5-Me2-4-Br; and a "super bulky" aniline (Ar*NH2) [Ar* = 2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-tert-butylphenyl], led to the immediate formation of a range of products dependent upon the substituent. With electron-withdrawing substituents, previously unknown diamines, RC6H4NH(CH2NMe2) [R = CN (2a), NO2 (2b)] and R2C6H3NH(CH2NMe2) [R2 = 3,5-(CF3)2 (2c)] were formed. Further reaction of 2a, b, c with 1 yielded the corresponding triamines RC6H4N(CH2NMe2)2 (R = CN (3a), NO2 (3b) and R2C6H3N(CH2NMe2)2, R2 = 3,5-(CF3)2 (3c). The new polyamines were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and for 2a, 2c, and 3c, by single crystal XRD. In the case of electron-donating groups, R = 4-OMe, 4-NMe2, 4-Me, 3,5-Me2, 3,5-Me2-4-Br, and for R = 4-Ph, the reactions with 1 immediately led to the formation of the related 1,3,5-triazines, R = 4-MeO (5a), 4-Me2N (5b), 4-Ph (5c), 3,5-Me2 (5d), 3,5-Me2-4-Br (5e), 4-Ph (5f), 4-Cl (5g). The "super-bulky" aniline rapidly produced a single product, namely the corresponding imine Ar*N=CH2 (4) which was also characterized by single crystal XRD. All reactions are very fast, thus based upon the presence of Si we are tempted to denote the reactions of 1 as examples of Silick Chemistry.
- Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 15-1 and fructooligosaccharides on the response of broilers to pathogenic Escherichia coli O78 challenge. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0212079
- One-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to five treatment groups: basal diet and orally administered sterile saline (negative control, n-control); basal diet challenged with E. coli O78 (positiv…
One-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to five treatment groups: basal diet and orally administered sterile saline (negative control, n-control); basal diet challenged with E. coli O78 (positive control, p-control); basal diet supplemented with 1×108 CFU/kg L. plantarum 15-1 and challenged with E. coli O78 (LP); basal diet supplemented with 5 g/kg fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and challenged with E. coli O78 (FOS); and basal diet supplemented with both L. plantarum 15-1 and FOS and challenged with E. coli O78 (LP+FOS). The broilers in the LP, FOS, and LP+FOS groups displayed a decrease of crypt depth at day 14 compared with the control groups. Furthermore, at days 14 and 21, the broilers in the LP group exhibited reduced serum levels of diamine oxidase (DAO) compared with the p-control group (p<0.05), and the broilers in the LP+FOS group showed increased serum concentrations of IgA and IgG relative to both control groups and decreased DAO levels compared with the p-control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the LP group displayed higher levels of acetic acid and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) compared with the p-control group at day 14 (p<0.05), and the FOS group showed higher levels of valeric acid and total SCFAs at day 21 (p<0.05). The LP+FOS group also displayed a higher level of butyric acid at day 14 (p<0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with FOS improved the growth performance, while supplementation with L. plantarum 15-1 and FOS improved intestinal health by increasing the levels of SCFAs and mitigating the damage caused by E. coli O78, thus preventing intestinal damage and enhancing the immune response.
- The effect of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the production of outer membrane vesicles from Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. [Journal Article]
- GHGastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2019; 12(2):155-162
- CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion we reported that palmitic acid had a stimulatory effect on the growth of B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron and had a dose dependent effect on the production of B. fragilis OMVs. Also producing of B. thetaiotaomicron OMVs was affected by palmitoleic acid in a dose dependent manner.
- Irisin Contributes to the Hepatoprotection of Dexmedetomidine during Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion. [Journal Article]
- OMOxid Med Cell Longev 2019; 2019:7857082
- Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, is also accompanied with abnormal energy metabolism and liver injury. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced ho…
Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, is also accompanied with abnormal energy metabolism and liver injury. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced hormone, can regulate adipose browning and thermogenesis. The following study investigated the potential role of dexmedetomidine in liver injury during intestinal I/R in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Dexmedetomidine or irisin-neutralizing antibody was intravenously administered for 1 h before surgery. The results demonstrated that severe intestine and liver injuries occurred during intestinal I/R as evidenced by pathological scores and an apparent increase in serum diamine oxidase (DAO), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. In addition, the hepatic irisin, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and NLRP3 inflammasome components (including NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1), protein expressions, apoptotic index, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 levels increased; however, the serum irisin level and hepatic Bcl-2 protein expression and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased after intestinal I/R. Interestingly, dexmedetomidine could reduce the above listed changes and increase the irisin levels in plasma and the liver in I/R rats. Dexmedetomidine-mediated protective effects on liver injury and NLRP3 inflammasome activation during intestinal I/R were partially abrogated via irisin-neutralizing antibody treatment. The results suggest that irisin might contribute to the hepatoprotection of dexmedetomidine during intestinal ischemia/reperfusion.
- Solvent- and Catalyst-free Synthesis, Hybridization and Characterization of Biobased Nonisocyanate Polyurethane (NIPU). [Journal Article]
- PPolymers (Basel) 2019 Jun 10; 11(6)
- Nonisocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) is a research hotspot in polyurethane applications because it does not use phosgene. Herein, a novel method of solvent- and catalyst-free synthesis of a hybrid nonis…
Nonisocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) is a research hotspot in polyurethane applications because it does not use phosgene. Herein, a novel method of solvent- and catalyst-free synthesis of a hybrid nonisocyanate polyurethane (HNIPU) is proposed. First, four diamines were used to react with ethylene carbonate to obtain four bis(hydroxyethyloxycarbonylamino)alkane (BHA). Then, BHA reacted with dimer acid under condensation in the melt to prepare four nonisocynate polyurethane prepolymers. Further, the HNIPUs were obtained by crosslinking prepolymers and resin epoxy and cured with the program temperature rise. In addition, four amines and two resin epoxies were employed to study the effects and regularity of HNIPUs. According to the results from thermal and dynamic mechanical analyses, those HNIPUs showed a high degree of thermal stability, and the highest 5% weight loss reached about 350 °C. More importantly, the utilization of these green raw materials accords with the concept of sustainable development. Further, the synthetic method and HNIPUs don't need isocyanates, catalysts, or solvents.
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- endo-Hydroxamic Acid Monomers for the Assembly of a Suite of Non-native Dimeric Macrocyclic Siderophores Using Metal-Templated Synthesis. [Journal Article]
- ICInorg Chem 2019 Jun 05
- An expedited synthesis of endo-hydroxamic acid aminocarboxylic acid (endo-HXA) compounds has been developed. These monomeric ligands are relevant to the synthesis of metal-macrocycle complexes using …
An expedited synthesis of endo-hydroxamic acid aminocarboxylic acid (endo-HXA) compounds has been developed. These monomeric ligands are relevant to the synthesis of metal-macrocycle complexes using metal-templated synthesis (MTS), and the downstream production of apomacrocycles. Macrocycles can display useful drug properties and be used as ligands for radiometals in medical imaging applications, which supports methodological advances in accessing this class of molecule. Six endo-HXA ligands were prepared that contained methylene groups, ether atoms, or thioether atoms in different regions of the monomer (1-6). MTS using a 1:2 Fe(III)/ligand ratio furnished six dimeric hydroxamic acid macrocycles complexed with Fe(III) (1a-6a). The corresponding apomacrocycles (1b-6b) were produced upon treatment with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Constitutional isomers of the apomacrocycles that contained one ether oxygen atom in the diamine-containing (2b) or dicarboxylic acid-containing (3b) region were well resolved by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Density functional theory calculations were used to compute the structures and solvated molecular properties of 1b-6b and showed that the orientation of the amide bonds relative to the pseudo- C2 axis was close to parallel in 1b, 2b, and 4b-6b but tended toward perpendicular in 3b. This conformational constraint in 3b reduced the polarity compared with 2b, consistent with the experimental trend in polarity observed using RP-HPLC. The improved synthesis of endo-HXA ligands allows expanded structural diversity in MTS-derived macrocycles and the ability to modulate macrocycle properties.