- Diethylstilbestrol: Potential health risks for women exposed in utero and their offspring. [Journal Article]
- JJAAPA 2017; 30(2):49-52
- Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen given to pregnant women to prevent miscarriages and preterm labor; the drug was used between 1941 and 1971 in the United States and into the 1980s in ...
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen given to pregnant women to prevent miscarriages and preterm labor; the drug was used between 1941 and 1971 in the United States and into the 1980s in other countries. DES exposure is associated with significant long-term health effects, including increased risk for breast cancer, cervical and vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, reproductive tract abnormalities, infertility, poor pregnancy outcomes, and early menopause. This article reviews the potential health risks associated with DES exposure, how to assess which patients are at risk, and management recommendations for patients exposed to DES.
- Investigation of diethylstilbestrol residue level in human urine samples by a specific monoclonal antibody. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jan 14
- Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is used as a kind of animal feed additive and affects people's health through the food chain. The purpose of this study is to detect the residue level of DES in 576 human uri...
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is used as a kind of animal feed additive and affects people's health through the food chain. The purpose of this study is to detect the residue level of DES in 576 human urine samples directly. DES-BSA was used to immunize Balb/c mice. The monoclonal antibody was produced by hybridoma that was screened through cell fusion techniques. Finally, we developed the indirect competitive ELISA method to analyze 576 human urine samples from Zhejiang Province, China. The IC50 of this method was 3.33 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ were 0.16 and 0.54 ng/mL. Linear range of the standard curve was from LOD to 12.50 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with two kinds of estrogens and two structural analogs with DES. Five hundred seventy-six urine samples were analyzed by the indirect competitive ELISA method, and the detection rate was 98.78%. The mean concentration and geometric mean were 4.70 and 3.50 ng/mL. The indirect competitive ELISA method based on monoclonal antibody was sensitive and reliable for the detection of DES in human urine samples. The results warned us to pay more attention to human health and food safety.
- Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A or Diethylstilbestrol Increases the Susceptibility to Develop Mammary Gland Lesions After Estrogen Replacement Therapy in Middle-Aged Rats. [Journal Article]
- HCHorm Cancer 2017 Jan 11
- The development of the mammary gland is a hormone-regulated event. Several factors can dysregulate its growth and make the gland more susceptible to cellular transformation. Among these factors, peri...
The development of the mammary gland is a hormone-regulated event. Several factors can dysregulate its growth and make the gland more susceptible to cellular transformation. Among these factors, perinatal exposure to xenoestrogens and hormone replacement therapy has been associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we assessed the effects induced by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged rats and whether perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or bisphenol A (BPA) modified these effects in the mammary gland. Pregnant rats were orally exposed to vehicle, 5 μg DES/kg/day, or 0.5 or 50 μg BPA/kg/day from gestational day 9 until weaning. Then, 12-month-old offspring were OVX and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months. Morphological changes and the percentage of epithelial cells that proliferated or expressed estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and progesterone receptor (PR) were analyzed in mammary gland samples of 15-month-old animals. ERT induced lobuloalveolar hyperplasia and ductal cysts in the mammary gland of middle-aged rats, associated with a higher proliferation index of epithelial cells. Perinatal exposure to DES followed by ERT increased the number of cysts and induced the formation of fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma in situ, without modifying the expression of ESR1 or PR. Also, after 3 months of ERT, BPA-exposed rats had a higher incidence of ductal hyperplasia and atypical lobular hyperplasia than animals under ERT alone. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to xenoestrogens increases the susceptibility of the mammary gland to develop cysts and hyperplastic lesions when confronted with ERT later in life.
- Impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on psychological outcome: a national survey of DES daughters and unexposed controls. [Journal Article]
- AWArch Womens Ment Health 2017 Jan 07
- To explore whether prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is associated with increased risk of poor psychological outcome independently of the occurrence of major somatic complications related...
To explore whether prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is associated with increased risk of poor psychological outcome independently of the occurrence of major somatic complications related to DES exposure. Data on health outcome were collected in women prenatally exposed to DES (n = 2566) and unexposed women (n = 2967) recruited in a French national survey. Women prenatally exposed to DES were 1.7 times more likely to have consulted a mental health specialist compared to unexposed women (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.47-1.96), independently of demographic characteristics, poor gynecological or obstetrical outcome, or history of cancer. Frequency of consultation with a mental health specialist in persons with a history of gynecological complications or cancer was comparable in women prenatally exposed to DES and unexposed women. Findings regarding psychological outcome obtained in the high-risk group of women prenatally exposed to DES may contribute to improving identification of psychological needs of all women presenting with gynecological abnormalities.
- Diethylstilbestrol activates CatSper and disturbs progesterone actions in human spermatozoa. [Journal Article]
- HRHum Reprod 2016 Dec 28
- Is diethylstilbestrol (DES), a prototypical endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), able to induce physiological changes in human spermatozoa and affect progesterone actions?
Is diethylstilbestrol (DES), a prototypical endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), able to induce physiological changes in human spermatozoa and affect progesterone actions?
- The Diethylstilbestrol Legacy: A Powerful Case Against Intervention in Uncomplicated Pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- PedPediatrics 2016; 138(Suppl 1):S42-S44
- Potential Intervention Targets in Utero and Early Life for Prevention of Hormone Related Cancers. [Journal Article]
- PedPediatrics 2016; 138(Suppl 1):S22-S33
- Hormone-related cancers have long been thought to be sensitive to exposures during key periods of sexual development, as shown by the vulnerability to such cancers of women exposed to diethylstilbest...
Hormone-related cancers have long been thought to be sensitive to exposures during key periods of sexual development, as shown by the vulnerability to such cancers of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. In addition to evidence from human studies, animal studies using new techniques, such as gene knockout models, suggest that an increasing number of cancers may be hormonally related, including liver, lung, and bladder cancer. Greater understanding of sexual development has also revealed the "mini-puberty" of early infancy as a key period when some sex hormones reach levels similar to those at puberty. Factors driving sex hormones in utero and early infancy have not been systematically identified as potential targets of intervention for cancer prevention. On the basis of sex hormone pathways, we identify common potentially modifiable drivers of sex hormones, including but not limited to factors such as obesity, alcohol, and possibly nitric oxide. We review the evidence for effects of modifiable drivers of sex hormones during the prenatal period and early infancy, including measured hormones as well as proxies, such as the second-to-fourth digit length ratio. We summarize the gaps in the evidence needed to identify new potential targets of early life intervention for lifelong cancer prevention.
- Risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer of the cervix in DES daughters. [Journal Article]
- GOGynecol Oncol 2017; 144(2):305-311
- CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of CIN1 among DES daughters was observed, especially in women with DES-related malformations, probably mainly due to screening. The risk of CIN2+ (including cancer) was not increased. However, among DES daughters with DES-related malformations a true small risk increase for non-CCA cervical cancer cannot be excluded.
- Persulfate-assisted photodegradation of diethylstilbestrol using monoclinic BiVO4 under visible-light irradiation. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Nov 26
- In this study, the photosynergistic performance of BiVO4 with persulfate (PS) is demonstrated under visible light irradiation for the first time. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was selected as a reluctant ...
In this study, the photosynergistic performance of BiVO4 with persulfate (PS) is demonstrated under visible light irradiation for the first time. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was selected as a reluctant compound, and factors including dosages of PS and catalyst, solution pHs, initial concertration of DES, and inorganic anions were evaluated. The morphology and chemical state of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). It was found that the degradation of DES was promoted in either acid or alkaline solutions. The increase of PS and BiVO4 dosages was beneficial to the reactions, while incremental concentration of DES showed the inhibiting effect. By scavenging hVB(+), Cl(-) was able to make the promotion, differentiated from the exsiting HCO- 3. Moreover, the photocatalytic mechanism for the BiVO4/PS/vis-light system was proposed by using several probe compounds (isopropanol, tert-butanol, and 1,4-benzoquinone), which consists of h+ VB/e- CB generation and recombination on the surface of BiVO4 as well as free radical oxidation in the solutions. The study provides a distinctive method to treat organic contaminants using visible light in the aqueous environment.
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- Development of an in vitro test battery for the screening of the receptor-mediated mechanism and the spindle-poison mode of action of estrogenic compounds. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol Pharmacol 2016; 48:245-252
- The implementation of the REACH regulation has imposed the urgent need of developing alternative testing methods to screen large number of compounds more quickly and at lower costs. In this study, a ...
The implementation of the REACH regulation has imposed the urgent need of developing alternative testing methods to screen large number of compounds more quickly and at lower costs. In this study, a battery of tests, suitable for reproductive toxicology testing, was developed with the objective of detecting the mechanism of action of estrogenic and xenoestrogenic compounds. With this aim, two compounds known for their estrogenic activity, diethylstilbestrol and 17β-estradiol, were used to set up four different in vitro tests: 1) bovine oocyte in vitro maturation assay, 2) bovine preimplantation embryo in vitro culture assay and 3) MCF-7 and 4) BALB/3T3 cell lines proliferation and cytotoxicity assay, respectively. The results show that this battery of tests allows to identify and to distinguish between two major mechanisms of action of (xeno)estrogenic compounds: the receptor-mediated mechanism and the spindle-poison effect on microtubules polimerization.