- A wee drachm for the Journal. [Journal Article]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 1961 Dec 28; 265:1307-8
- A STUDY OF PNEUMOCOCCI AND ALLIED ORGANISMS IN HUMAN MOUTHS AND LUNGS AFTER DEATH. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Med 1905 Aug 25; 7(5):450-72
- CONCLUSIONS: MAY BE DRAWN, BASED UPON THE RESULT OF OUR RESEARCHES: 1. Organisms of the pneumococcus or streptococcus group are present in the lungs of practically all cases, whether normal or showing a variety of lesions; strictly speaking, they were found by us in forty out of forty-two cases, or in 95% of our series. 2. The pneumococci and the streptococci were obtained in practically similar percentages-that is, in 50 % of the cases. 3. Pneumococci were not obtained more frequently in the small series of patients exposed for some time to hospital atmosphere; our tables show the contrary to obtain. The number of cases examined were, however, insufficient, and the findings may thus be accidental, and hence of no value. 4. Test micro-organisms, namely, small portions-half a drachm or less-of B. prodigiosus, introduced into the human mouth after death, were conveyed to and recovered from the lungs by culture in a little over half of the cases in which this experiment was tried. The test micro-organisms are, we believe, conveyed to the lungs with the fluid which collects in mouths of persons after death, and which in many cases collects just before death. The numerous manipulations entailed in the removal of the body from the wards to the morgue greatly facilitate the entrance of any fluid from the pharynx and buccal cavity into the lungs. It follows logically, from the results obtained in this experiment, that the cultural findings after death are no guide to the bacterial contents of the lungs during life, and that any deductions made from such findings are unreliable and deceptive. Granted that our explanation be correct, there is every reason to believe that any of the micro-organisms present in the mouths and pharynx and in many cases in the stomach contents may enter the lungs and, if the conditions be suitable, increase in numbers, during the time between death and the examination of the lungs. There exists, perhaps, more frequently than has hitherto been suspected, a series of diplococci, intermediate between the typical pneumococci and streptococci. The diplococci of this type have been found in forty (40) per cent. of our cases. The differential diagnosis of these atypical diplococci from the pneumococci and streptococci is a difficult one, depending, as it does, upon general cultural characteristics. No single character, such as the presence of capsules or the fermentation of inulin, virulence, etc., has been found to be a certain criterion. The few agglutinative reactions we have made seem to show that these intermediate diplococci, those of Groups II, III, and IV, have no or only slight agglutinative affinities to the typical pneumococcus. Further tests must, however, be made with the various methods at our disposal before this statement can be accepted as final. These diplococci are of interest from the fact that they have been found in the blood during life, and in the pial exudate of cases of meningitis, endocarditis, etc. 6. Our studies have thrown no light whatever upon the conditions which determine the onset of lobar pneumonia in apparently healthy persons. Moreover, we have been unable to draw conclusions as to the presence of pneumococci in the lungs during life, or as to the channels by which they gain access thereto.
- Account of an Individual Who Swallowed a Drachm of Powdered Cantharides. [Journal Article]
- LMLond Med Phys J 1825; 54(322):463-465