- Smoking relapse risk is increased among individuals in recovery. [Journal Article]
- DADrug Alcohol Depend 2019 Jul 08; 202:93-103
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that smokers in recovery from SUDs have 1.5-2 times the risk of relapse than smokers with no history of SUDs. More effective relapse prevention interventions are needed for this vulnerable, high-risk group of smokers.
- Uncovering the lived experiences of Filipino drug recoverees towards occupational participation and justice through an interpretative phenomenological analysis. [Journal Article]
- SJScand J Occup Ther 2019 Jul 19; :1-14
- Background: The drug using crisis entails participation and justice issues making it a pressing health and social concern in the Philippines today. Aim: This study explored the lived experiences of…
Background: The drug using crisis entails participation and justice issues making it a pressing health and social concern in the Philippines today. Aim: This study explored the lived experiences of Filipinos recovering from drug addiction and sought to understand the occupational justice determinants of drug addiction to better develop substance addiction rehabilitation programs in the Philippines. Method: Using a qualitative approach, we conducted in-depth interviews guided by the Occupational Justice Health Questionnaire to 24 participants. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: We found four emerging themes: living with drugs, living around rules, living for the future, and living amidst the war on drugs. Each theme represented a "period of participation" exposing occupational injustices that activated the first enablement skill "raise consciousness of occupational injustice" from the Participatory Occupational Justice Framework. Conclusion and Significance: Understanding the participants' lived experiences raised consciousness of the injustices that exist before and during rehabilitation which uncovered pointers to improve local substance addiction rehabilitation programs: use of occupation-based social participation interventions, limitation of occupational therapy services due to lack of human resources reinforcing interprofessional collaboration, a participatory approach is essential in discussing and addressing injustices, and deliberate use of political activities of daily living.
- Psychostimulant use disorder and the heart. [Journal Article]
- AAddiction 2019 Jul 18
- Psychostimulants are a diverse range of substances that encompass cocaine and the phenylethylamines, the latter including the amphetamines, cathinones and some 'novel psychoactive substances'. This p…
Psychostimulants are a diverse range of substances that encompass cocaine and the phenylethylamines, the latter including the amphetamines, cathinones and some 'novel psychoactive substances'. This paper examines the range of pathophysiological processes, clinical presentations and treatment options involving the heart and cardiovascular system both in the acute setting and where long-term effects of psychostimulant use have affected the cardiovascular system. A common feature of these drugs is their effect on the cardiovascular system, where their major action is that of sympathomimetic amines with short- and long-term stimulation of the adrenergic system and consequent effects on blood pressure, cardiac modelling, atherogenesis and cellular calcium signalling. Cocaine additionally exhibits a variety of prothrombotic effects, effects on inflammatory mediators and alterations in myocardial gene expression. Persistent psychostimulant use results in progressive cardiovascular pathology, largely in the form of accelerated atherosclerosis, hypertension and myocardial ischaemia. Abstinence results in at least partial reversal of pathology. To a large extent, an assumption is made that treatment protocols used for cocaine-associated cardiovascular pathology apply to the amphetamines and other phenylethylamines, but there appears to be little research in this area, despite acknowledgement that cocaine and the better-known amphetamines have different modes of action.
- Clinical issues: substance use disorders and the body. [Editorial]
- AAddiction 2019 Jul 18
- Psychostimulant use and the brain. [Journal Article]
- AAddiction 2019 Jul 19
- Psychostimulant users are typically young adults. We have conducted a narrative review of neuropsychiatric harms associated with the psychostimulants methamphetamine/amphetamine, cocaine and 3,4-meth…
Psychostimulant users are typically young adults. We have conducted a narrative review of neuropsychiatric harms associated with the psychostimulants methamphetamine/amphetamine, cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), focusing on epidemiological factors, common clinical presentations, underlying causal mechanisms and treatment options. The major neuropsychiatric harms of psychostimulant use are stroke, neurocognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, seizures and psychotic illness. These arise through a combination of acute monoamine release, longer-term neurotransmitter effects and indirect effects. These effects are moderated by factors in the individual and in the pattern of substance use. Neuropsychiatric harms associated with psychostimulant use can thus lead to severe long-term impairment.
- Cross-country Comparison of Treatment Policies Facing the Drug Abuse in Five Selected Countries. [Journal Article]
- AHAddict Health 2019; 11(2):81-92
- CONCLUSIONS: It seems that performance of HR countries is better than WOD countries.
- Goal setting improves retention in youth mental health: a cross-sectional analysis. [Journal Article]
- CAChild Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2019; 13:31
- CONCLUSIONS: Engagement and retention of young people within mental health services can be challenging. Clinical tools such as goal setting may keep young people engaged in services longer, potentially improving clinical outcomes. Further research exploring the effectiveness of current youth service models on client-specific goal based outcomes is recommended.
- Sign-tracking behavior is difficult to extinguish and resistant to multiple cognitive enhancers. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurobiol Learn Mem 2019 Jul 15; :107045
- The attribution of incentive-motivational value to drug-related cues underlies relapse and craving in drug addiction. One method of addiction treatment, cue-exposure therapy, utilizes repeated presen…
The attribution of incentive-motivational value to drug-related cues underlies relapse and craving in drug addiction. One method of addiction treatment, cue-exposure therapy, utilizes repeated presentations of drug-related cues in the absence of drug (i.e., extinction learning); however, its efficacy has been limited due to an incomplete understanding of extinction and relapse processes after cues have been imbued with incentive-motivational value. To investigate this, we used a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure to screen for rats that attribute incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues (sign-trackers; STs) or those that do not (goal-trackers; GTs). In Experiment 1, rats underwent Pavlovian extinction followed by reinstatement and spontaneous recovery tests. For comparison, a separate group of rats underwent PCA training followed by operant conditioning, extinction, and tests of reinstatement and spontaneous recovery. In Experiment 2, three cognitive enhancers (sodium butyrate, D-cycloserine, and fibroblast growth factor 2) were administered following extinction training to facilitate extinction learning. STs but not GTs displayed enduring resistance to Pavlovian, but not operant, extinction and were more susceptible to spontaneous recovery. In addition, none of the cognitive enhancers tested affected extinction learning. These results expand our understanding of extinction learning by demonstrating that there is individual variation in extinction and relapse processes and highlight potential difficulties in applying extinction-based therapies to drug addiction treatment in the clinic.
- Heroin and healthcare: patient characteristics and healthcare prior to overdose. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Manag Care 2019; 25(7):341-347
- CONCLUSIONS: Heroin overdose rates were persistently higher among the Medicaid population than the commercially insured, with the exception of those aged 15 to 24 years. Our findings on healthcare utilization, comorbidities, and where individuals access services could inform interventions at the point of care prior to a first heroin overdose. Outpatient settings are of particular importance for the growing cohort of young, commercially insured patients with opioid use disorders.
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- [Questions of the therapy of sleep disorders in hospital practice]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2019; 119(4. Vyp. 2):69-72
- The article provides data on the prevalence of insomnia disorders in general medical practice. There is low awareness of both the medical community and the public about sleep disorders. The authors h…
The article provides data on the prevalence of insomnia disorders in general medical practice. There is low awareness of both the medical community and the public about sleep disorders. The authors highlight main directions of medical correction of insomnia and present data on the positive and side effects of the main drugs, in particular, on the formation of benzodiazepine addiction in the group with uncontrolled use of these drugs. The problem of non-pharmacological correction of insomnia disorders occurring in patients in hospital conditions is updated. Results of a large-scale study of the efficacy of melaxen in treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia are presented.