- Developing and applying a framework to understand mechanisms of action in group-based, behaviour change interventions: the MAGI mixed-methods study [BOOK]
- BOOKNIHR Journals Library: Southampton (UK)
- CONCLUSIONS: This study identified, defined, categorised into a framework and provided examples of group-level mechanisms that may influence behaviour change.
- Severe Temporal Hyper-Activated States Caused by Noise in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis with Normal Hearing. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Audiol Otol 2019 Jun 25
- Lots of neuroimaging and animal studies have revealed that tinnitus and hyperacusis share the same patterns in the bottom up central auditory process. The aim was to identify the abnormal central pat…
Lots of neuroimaging and animal studies have revealed that tinnitus and hyperacusis share the same patterns in the bottom up central auditory process. The aim was to identify the abnormal central patterns commonly observed in both tinnitus and hyperacusis in humans. We investigated two cases of normal hearing: a tinnitus patient and a hyperacusis patient. We compared the differences between the severe temporal hyper-activated state (STHS), with spikes, fast beta and gamma frequencies after noise exposure, and the mild temporal hyper-activated state (MTHS), in no sound exposed condition. The power of the gamma band in the two cases was increased in both auditory cortices compared to the other brain regions. Our results of human with normal hearing were the first to identify how tinnitus and hyperacusis caused by sound are abnormally active and how they maintain constant pathological states.
- Inflammatory Periimplant Diseases and the Periodontal Connection Question. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Dent 2019; 13(1):119-123
- Implant therapy has become a widespread reality in modern dentistry. Nevertheless, dental implants can fail due to different causes, among which inflammatory peri-implant diseases (IPDs) are a major …
Implant therapy has become a widespread reality in modern dentistry. Nevertheless, dental implants can fail due to different causes, among which inflammatory peri-implant diseases (IPDs) are a major challenge, with prevalences that are much higher than previously believed.Specific searches were undertaken for each question raised between October and November 2017, in the PubMed website database (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland, United States). Only articles written in English and published from 2007 onward were considered initially. The following keywords were used in the searches "periimplantitis (PI)," "periimplant mucositis (PM)," "dental implant failure," "periimplant microbiota," "periodontal microbiota," "implant failure" (no temporal limit), and "foreign body reaction" (no temporal limit). The selection process resulted in the selection of 239 articles that were analyzed in detail in elaborating this review. The reference list was limited to the 47 most relevant articles due to editorial limits of this Journal.Intrinsic differences between natural teeth and dental implants are able to give rise to inflammatory diseases that share only minor and scarcely relevant characters, and would consequently deserve different and specifically designed instruments and strategies, for both diagnosis and therapy.
- Alcohol use disorder and sleep disturbances: a feed-forward allostatic framework. [Review]
- NNeuropsychopharmacology 2019 Jun 24
- The development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) involves binge drinking to high levels of intoxication that leads to compulsive intake, the loss of control in limiting intake, and a negative emotional …
The development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) involves binge drinking to high levels of intoxication that leads to compulsive intake, the loss of control in limiting intake, and a negative emotional state when alcohol is removed. This cascade of events occurs over an extended period within a three-stage cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. These three stages map onto the dysregulation of functional domains of incentive salience/habits, negative emotional states, and executive function, mediated by the basal ganglia, extended amygdala, and frontal cortex, respectively. Sleep disturbances, alterations of sleep architecture, and the development of insomnia are ubiquitous in AUD and also map onto the three stages of the addiction cycle. During the binge/intoxication stage, alcohol intoxication leads to a faster sleep onset, but sleep quality is poor relative to nights when no alcohol is consumed. The reduction of sleep onset latency and increase in wakefulness later in the night may be related to the acute effects of alcohol on GABAergic systems that are associated with sleep regulation and the effects on brain incentive salience systems, such as dopamine. During the withdrawal/negative affect stage, there is a decrease in slow-wave sleep and some limited recovery in REM sleep when individuals with AUD stop drinking. Limited recovery of sleep disturbances is seen in AUD within the first 30 days of abstinence. The effects of withdrawal on sleep may be related to the loss of alcohol as a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, a decrease in dopamine function, and the overactivation of stress neuromodulators, including hypocretin/orexin, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing factor, and cytokines. During the preoccupation/anticipation stage, individuals with AUD who are abstinent long-term present persistent sleep disturbances, including a longer latency to fall asleep, more time awake during the night, a decrease in slow-wave sleep, decreases in delta electroencephalogram power and evoked delta activity, and an increase in REM sleep. Glutamatergic system dysregulation that is observed in AUD is a likely substrate for some of these persistent sleep disturbances. Sleep pathology contributes to AUD pathology, and vice versa, possibly as a feed-forward drive to an unrecognized allostatic load that drives the addiction process.
- Characterizing the Effect of Automated Cell Sorting Solutions on Cytomorphological Changes. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Cytol 2019 Jun 24; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: We showed that cells swell in the solution after 1 h of storage and contract as time progresses. Together, our findings have important implications for how mathematical analysis is applied during the automated screening process.
- Dual nanotransfer printing for complementary plasmonic biosensors. [Journal Article]
- NNanotechnology 2019 Jun 24
- One of the main challenges in the widespread utilization of localized plasmon resonance-based biosensors is the fabrication of large-area and low-cost plasmonic nanostructures. In this work, we fabri…
One of the main challenges in the widespread utilization of localized plasmon resonance-based biosensors is the fabrication of large-area and low-cost plasmonic nanostructures. In this work, we fabricated large-area and low-cost complementary plasmonic biosensors such as nanohole and nanodisk arrays using dual nanotransfer printing (NTP) with a single metal deposition and a single reusable mold. The suspended nanohole arrays (SNHA) and the suspended nanodisk arrays (SNDA) were fabricated using the subsequent dry etching process. We confirmed a maximum enhancement in bulk sensitivity in experiments and simulations by controlling the vertical and lateral etching depths of the dielectric layer underneath the gold (Au) nanohole and nanodisk arrays. Furthermore, we show that the surface sensitivity evaluated by atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide increased because appropriate vertical and lateral etching depths allow the target analyte to access the additional near-field formed at the bottom of the Au nanostructure. The dual NTP method provides a practical solution for the realization of large-area and low-cost label-free plasmonic biosensing systems, with a reduction in complexity and cost of the fabrication process of complementary plasmonic structures and metasurfaces.
- Quality enhancement of low temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposited MoS2: an experimental and computational investigation. [Journal Article]
- NNanotechnology 2019 Jun 24
- Electronic quality of chemical vapor deposited MoS<sub>2</sub> is a function of crystallinity, which tends to decline with decrease in deposition temperature. Conventional thermal annealing can impro…
Electronic quality of chemical vapor deposited MoS<sub>2</sub> is a function of crystallinity, which tends to decline with decrease in deposition temperature. Conventional thermal annealing can improve the quality but requires very high temperatures. In this study, we investigate a novel low temperature (room temperature to 400 °C) annealing process that exploits the electron wind force during passage of current. Here, moderate current density gives rise to atomic scale mechanical force whenever the electrons encounter defects in the lattice or grain boundaries. After hypothesizing that this force can significantly enhance defect mobility without any temperature field, we demonstrate the process using in-situ transmission electron microscope and molecular dynamics simulation. Monolayer metal organic chemical vapor deposited MoS<sub>2</sub> deposited at 400 °C was post processed at temperature as low as 20 °C. Experimental results show 5 times enhancement in electrical conductivity, which is supported by electron diffraction patterns indicating significant grain growth. Discrete spots in diffraction indicate evolution of high crystallinity even at room temperature. Our computational model shows the mechanisms behind healing lattice defects as well as reorienting the grain boundaries. The enhancement in microstructure of the specimen is also reflected in mechanical properties simulations on pre- and post-annealed specimens.
- Tuning the optoelectronic properties of PEDOT:PSS - PVP core-shell electrospun nanofibers by solvent - quantum dot doping and phase inversion. [Journal Article]
- NNanotechnology 2019 Jun 24
- In the present study core-shell PEDOT:PSS - PVP nanofibers were synthesized by coaxial electrospinning. These fibers were doped with different solvents (dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO, isopropyl alcohol, I…
In the present study core-shell PEDOT:PSS - PVP nanofibers were synthesized by coaxial electrospinning. These fibers were doped with different solvents (dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO, isopropyl alcohol, IPA, and ethylene glycol, EG), and PbS nanoparticles at different concentrations; and the coaxial electrospinning setup process was inverted in order to exchange the phases comprising the core-shell morphology. Experimental results showed that DMSO and IPA solvents produced a change in the PEDOT:PSS phase from its benzoid structure to a more conjugated (quinoid) one. The synthesized samples displayed an increment in the conductance of the composite nanofibers, based on a more conjugated structure of the PEDOT:PSS phase, and a better dispersion of the PbS nanoparticles within the nanofibers; this increment was, under certain synthesis conditions, up to three orders of magnitude higher than in the case of the nanofibers with no solvent, nor nanoparticles, added. Photoresponse also showed a clear increment in the value of the photogenerated current as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. Inverting the arrangement of the core-shell phases in the nanofibers increased the conductance and the photogenerated current in the cases analyzed. These results show novel evidence on the capability of tuning the conductance and photoresponse of composite core-shell nanofibers, based on the doping of the PEDOT:PSS phase with different solvents and PbS nanoparticles, and the arrangement of the core-shell phases. Tailoring the optoelectronic properties of conductive, flexible nanofibers is a desirable competence in technological areas such as transparent flexible conductors, biosensors and tissue engineering.
- Residents perceptions of non-dietary pesticide exposure risk. Knowledge gaps and challenges for targeted awareness-raising material in Italy. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jun 17; 685:775-785
- Currently there are no tools to accurately estimate pesticides exposure risk for residents and bystanders. European Member States have to develop specific measures and communication strategies to pre…
Currently there are no tools to accurately estimate pesticides exposure risk for residents and bystanders. European Member States have to develop specific measures and communication strategies to prevent and minimize non-occupational pesticides exposure. Moreover, these measures should be compliant with the requirements of the Directive on Sustainable Use of Pesticides. Unfortunately, there is a high degree of uncertainties in the assessment of the non-dietary exposure risk for residents, therefore risk communication passes through a deep understanding of exposure risk perception. The objective of this pilot study is to assess citizens' risk perception of non-dietary exposure to pesticides, and to assist policy-makers and risk communicators in developing targeted awareness-raising materials for residents and bystanders. Through a household survey, conducted in the rural area of the province of Piacenza (IT) we investigated knowledge, health risk perceptions, and information sources related to non-dietary exposure to agricultural pesticides in residents' indoor and outdoor environment. The factors that push individuals to give importance to several possible pollution sources and to mitigation measures or precaution, in order to protect themselves from possible exposure sources, were also investigated. Results show that even if the air quality of the residential area is not judged negatively, pesticides are perceived as air pollutants that could lead to an actual exposure and, are correlated to the health status. The perception of risk, however, does not seem to be dependent only on the distance between homes and fields. The interpretative hypothesis that the perception of the relationship between air quality and health is influenced by the cultural issue and by psycho-sensory factors and not supported by proper information, even if with some differences among age groups, it seems to be confirmed. To better transfer knowledge and communication, the commitment of those who are recognised as "competent" (doctors and researchers) is critical.
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- Development of nanoscale bioactive delivery systems using sonication: Glycyrrhizic acid-loaded cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Jun 19; 553:549-556
- The rapid synthesis of nanoscale cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) was successfully achieved using a simple, environmentally friendly process, which involved seed-mediated crystallizati…
The rapid synthesis of nanoscale cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) was successfully achieved using a simple, environmentally friendly process, which involved seed-mediated crystallization combined with sonication. Short-chain starch nanoparticles isolated from debranched starch were used as seeds to promote the assembly of CD molecules on their surfaces. This process led to the formation of small uniform crystals by increasing orderliness and reducing aggregation. The influence of sonication time on the morphology and dimensions of CD-MOF crystals was investigated. CD-MOFs with a range of mean particle diameters (234-894 nm) could be produced by adjusting the sonication time. Compared to conventional methods, sonication offered a simple and effective means to obtain a high yield and thermal stability of the CD-MOF crystals. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, is recognized for its potentially beneficial biological activities, such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, it's extremely low water-solubility and loading efficiency currently restrict its application. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) analysis provided information about the interactions between GA and CD-MOFs. Analysis of their encapsulation properties showed the potential of the CD-MOF crystals as effective nanocarriers for hydrophobic bioactive agents, such as drugs, vitamins, or nutraceuticals.