- Associations between arterial stiffness and blood pressure fluctuations after spinal cord injury. [Journal Article]
- SCSpinal Cord 2019 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Hypotensive events, and the combined frequency of both hypo- and hypertensive events within a 24-hr period are associated with increased arterial stiffness in individuals with T6 and above SCI, suggesting BP instability may play a role in arterial stiffening post SCI.
- Severe hyponatraemia and autonomic dysreflexia in a quadriplegic person. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2019 Jun 11; 12(6)
- Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a range of secondary health issues. Altered neurological function can complicate diagnosis, which may have serious consequences. Here we present the case o…
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a range of secondary health issues. Altered neurological function can complicate diagnosis, which may have serious consequences. Here we present the case of a tetraplegic person presenting with confusion and bradycardia. Initial testing revealed severe hyponatraemia (sodium 96 mmol/L) and ST elevation associated with labile blood pressure. Delayed further investigation identified sigmoid volvulus-endoscopic decompression led to resolution of haemodynamic lability and a diagnosis of autonomic dysreflexia. Low mood and poor documentation in the community were found to contribute to poor compliance with an established bowel management plan. Inpatient care involved electrolyte correction and establishment of regular bowel motions. The patient was discharged at baseline neurology with psychological support. This case highlights poor awareness of the secondary health issues affecting those with SCI and the complex relationship between mental and physical health.
- Autonomic dysreflexia during pregnancy in a woman with spinal cord injury: a case report. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Med Res 2019 Jun 12; :300060519853659
- Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Due to Midodrine in a Patient with Autonomic Dysreflexia. [Case Reports]
- CCureus 2019 Mar 20; 11(3):e4285
- Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare neurological condition that typically presents with a sudden-onset thunderclap headache associated with or without focal neurological de…
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare neurological condition that typically presents with a sudden-onset thunderclap headache associated with or without focal neurological deficits. The diagnosis is established by the presence of reversible segmental or diffuse cerebral vasoconstriction on diagnostic cerebral angiogram. Autonomic dysreflexia is a known complication resulting from spinal cord injury. It manifests as episodes of flushing, headache, and fluctuations in blood pressure. Midodrine is an alpha-1 agonist that causes vasoconstriction and is commonly used in patients with autonomic dysreflexia. Here, we report the case of a young woman with a history of autonomic dysreflexia, who presented with a thunderclap headache and was subsequently diagnosed with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.
- Long-term neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction: A case of cardiovascular nightmares. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Spinal Cord Med 2019 May 29; :1-5
- Context Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) suffering from autonomic dysreflexia (AD) due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) can effectively be treated with intradetrusor onabotulinumtox…
Context Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) suffering from autonomic dysreflexia (AD) due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) can effectively be treated with intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA. We present a complex case to highlight the treatment's potential limitations to ameliorate AD and improve lower urinary tract (LUT) function in this population. Findings A 46-year old man, who was relying on an indwelling urethral catheter for bladder emptying due to severely impaired hand function following a SCI (C5, AIS B) sustained 30 years ago, underwent intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for treatment of refractory NDO and associated AD. Although LUT function slightly improved (i.e. cystometric capacity increased while detrusor pressure was reduced), severe bladder-related AD persisted post-treatment. Conclusions This case raises awareness of serious considerations when treating NDO-related AD in individuals with longstanding neurogenic LUT dysfunction and compromised dexterity following SCI. Given the limited improvement in LUT function and persisting bladder-related AD following treatment, urinary diversion as advocated in the wider literature should be considered to protect an individual's urinary tract from further deterioration and thus eliminate bladder-related AD consequences long-term. Early treatment and management of NDO and AD is crucial to minimize complications associated with these two major health risks in this population.
- PRES secondary to autonomic dysreflexia: A case series and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Spinal Cord Med 2019 May 29; :1-7
- Context: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a complex syndrome seen in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and can be life-threatening with a significant negative impact on the health of the individ…
Context: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a complex syndrome seen in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and can be life-threatening with a significant negative impact on the health of the individual. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is thought to be caused, in part, by rapid elevations in blood pressure; leading to posterior cerebral circulatory edema. This can result in seizures, blindness and can progress to fatal intracranial hemorrhages. Findings: Here we present two cases of patients with SCI who developed PRES from AD. Each patient was correctly diagnosed, leading to appropriate treatment of the factors leading to their AD and subsequent resolution of their PRES symptoms. Conclusions/Clinical Relevance: In SCI patients who present with new seizures, visual deficits, or other neurologic signs, PRES should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis as a good outcome relies on rapid recognition and treatment of AD.
- Blood Pressure Instability in Persons with SCI: Evidence from a 30-Day Home Monitoring Observation. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hypertens 2019 May 24
- CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate significant blood pressure instability that may not be exclusive to persons with tetraplegia; in fact, individuals with low thoracic injuries demonstrated severe blood pressure fluctuations. The use of a monitor at home for an extended period may help document dangerous and extreme fluctuations in blood pressure and should be considered an important adjunctive clinical practice for tracking of the secondary consequences in the spinal cord injury population.
- The Blood Pressure Pendulum following Spinal Cord Injury: Implications for Vascular Cognitive Impairment. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 May 18; 20(10)
- Cognitive impairment following spinal cord injury (SCI) has received considerable attention in recent years. Among the various systemic effects of SCI that contribute towards cognitive decline in thi…
Cognitive impairment following spinal cord injury (SCI) has received considerable attention in recent years. Among the various systemic effects of SCI that contribute towards cognitive decline in this population, cardiovascular dysfunction is arguably one of the most significant. The majority of individuals with a cervical or upper-thoracic SCI commonly experience conditions called orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia, which are characterized by dangerous fluctuations in systemic blood pressure (BP). Herein, we review the potential impact of extreme BP lability on vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in individuals with SCI. Albeit preliminary in the SCI population, there is convincing evidence that chronic hypotension and hypertension in able-bodied individuals results in devastating impairments in cerebrovascular health, leading to VCI. We discuss the pertinent literature, and while drawing mechanistic comparisons between able-bodied cohorts and individuals with SCI, we emphasize the need for additional research to elucidate the mechanisms of cognitive impairment specific to the SCI population. Lastly, we highlight the current and potential future therapies to manage and treat BP instability, thereby possibly mitigating VCI in the SCI population.
- Development of a decerebrate model for investigating mechanisms mediating viscero-sympathetic reflexes in the spinalized rat. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 Jun 01; 316(6):H1332-H1340
- Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) often occurs in individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) and is characterized by uncontrolled hypertension in response to otherwise innocuous stimuli originating be…
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) often occurs in individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) and is characterized by uncontrolled hypertension in response to otherwise innocuous stimuli originating below the level of the spinal lesion. Visceral stimulation is a predominant cause of AD in humans and effectively replicates the phenotype in rodent models of SCI. Direct assessment of sympathetic responses to viscerosensory stimulation in spinalized animals is challenging and requires invasive surgical procedures necessitating the use of anesthesia. However, administration of anesthesia markedly affects viscerosensory reactivity, and the effects are exacerbated following spinal cord injury (SCI). Therefore, the major goal of the present study was to develop a decerebrate rodent preparation to facilitate quantification of sympathetic responses to visceral stimulation in the spinalized rat. Such a preparation enables the confounding effect of anesthesia to be eliminated. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SCI at the fourth thoracic segment. Four weeks later, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) responses to visceral stimuli were quantified in urethane/chloralose-anesthetized and decerebrate preparations. Visceral stimulation was elicited via colorectal distension (CRD) for 1 min. In the decerebrate preparation, CRD produced dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and RSNA and dose-dependent decreases in heart rate (HR). These responses were significantly greater in magnitude among decerebrate animals when compared with urethane/chloralose-anesthetized controls and were markedly attenuated by the administration of urethane/chloralose anesthesia after decerebration. We conclude that the decerebrate preparation enables high-fidelity quantification of neuronal reactivity to visceral stimulation in spinalized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In animal models commonly used to study spinal cord injury, quantification of sympathetic responses is particularly challenging due to the increased susceptibility of spinal reflex circuits to the anesthetic agents generally required for experimentation. This constitutes a major limitation to understanding the mechanisms mediating regionally specific neuronal responses to visceral activation in chronically spinalized animals. In the present study, we describe a spinalized, decerebrate rodent preparation that facilitates quantification of sympathetic reactivity in response to visceral stimuli following spinal cord injury. This preparation enables reliable and reproducible quantification of viscero-sympathetic reflex responses resembling those elicited in conscious animals and may provide added utility for preclinical evaluation of neuropharmacological agents for the management of autonomic dysreflexia.
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- Autonomic Dysreflexia in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury: What the Radiologist Needs to Know. [Journal Article]
- AAAJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Mar 12; :1-5
- CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of AD is essential for all health care practitioners involved in the care of patients with SCI. A variety of procedures in the radiology department, both diagnostic and interventional, may precipitate AD. Planning, monitoring procedures, knowledge of the relevant pathophysiology and pharmacology, and communication with clinical colleagues are essential to ensure safe practice. Clinicians ordering procedures and radiologists selecting protocols for those procedures should identify at-risk patients before booking a procedure to ensure appropriate supervision and anesthesiology support. Education of radiologists, interventional nursing staff, and technical staff can assist in prevention, early recognition, and successful management of AD.