- Sperm collection by electroejaculation in small ruminants: A review on welfare problems and alternative techniques. [Review]
- ARAnim Reprod Sci 2019; 205:1-9
- There are different perspectives on whether there should be use of electroejaculation (EE) for semen collection because it can be stressful and painful for the males when this technique is imposed. I…
There are different perspectives on whether there should be use of electroejaculation (EE) for semen collection because it can be stressful and painful for the males when this technique is imposed. In the present review it is examined 1) the effects of EE on animal welfare and semen quality in domestic and wild small ruminants, 2) benefits and limitations of administering anaesthetics and sedatives prior to EE, 3) advantages/disadvantages of transrectal ultrasonic-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) as an alternative to EE, and 4) benefits of administering hormones, such as oxytocin or PGF2α analogues (which stimulate the contractility of the male accessory sex glands), prior to EE and TUMASG. In general, the administration of anaesthetics, sedatives or hormones reduces the pain and stress caused by EE, and can improve sperm quality, but results may vary depending on the species. The use of anaesthetics is, however, not devoid of risks and pre-EE administration of sedatives, or oxytocin or PGF2α analogues, can aid sperm collection mitigate risks. The TUMASG is less stressful than EE, but its effectiveness varies greatly among species, and it can only be performed by trained personnel. Prior administration of the hormones may also result in a reduction in the period needed to induce ejaculation with use of TUMASG procedures.
- Methods of collection, extender type, and freezability of semen collected from creole bulls raised in the tropical highlands of Ecuador. [Journal Article]
- TATrop Anim Health Prod 2019 Apr 02
- This study was conducted to determine the best combination between two collection method and two extenders in the cryopreservation of semen from creole bulls adapted to highlands of the Ecuadorian An…
This study was conducted to determine the best combination between two collection method and two extenders in the cryopreservation of semen from creole bulls adapted to highlands of the Ecuadorian Andes. Sixty ejaculates from three adult Creole bulls were evaluated after collection by artificial vagina (AV) and electroejaculation (EE). Semen samples were split into two aliquots and diluted with a soy lecithin extender (Andromed®; A) or an egg yolk-containing extender (Triladyl®; T) and packed in straws of 0.25 ml with 20 × 106 sperms. Optical microscopy and computer-assisted semen analysis system (CASA) were used to evaluate semen quality characteristics. The effects of collection methods and extender type as well as its interaction were evaluated by a factorial ANOVA and Bonferroni's test. Semen samples collected with EE and frozen with T (EE-T) and A (EE-A) had greater proportion of spermatozoa with optical assessed individual progressive motility (IPM), plasmatic membrane intact (HosT), and lower tail abnormalities than those obtained with AV and frozen with the same extenders (AV-T and AV-A); however, differences were significant only between EE-A and AV-T. CASA assessment indicated that the total mobility (TM) was greater (P < 0.05) in semen samples diluted with T, although these samples had a greater proportion (P < 0.05) of sperms with local motility (LM) and fewer immobile sperms (IS), than those extended with A. Generally, semen samples obtained with EE or AV and diluted with T seems to be the best option to ciopreserve gametes of Creole bulls raised in highlands of Ecuadorian Andes.
- Effectiveness of urethral catheterization under ultrasound guidance for semen collection from Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2019 Apr 15; 129:154-159
- The Asiatic black bear (ABB; Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) is a globally endangered species, and measures to help increase their population are necessary. For the successful restoration of this species…
The Asiatic black bear (ABB; Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) is a globally endangered species, and measures to help increase their population are necessary. For the successful restoration of this species, artificial breeding as well as conservation translocation are considered important. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of urethral catheterization (UC), which is effectively used in feline species, for semen collection from ABBs and establish the optimal protocol for semen collection via this technique. Seven clinically healthy, adult male ABBs (age, 6-13 years; weight, 130-180 kg) housed at the Species Restoration Technology Institute, Korea were included in this study. All study procedures were performed during the breeding season (June to August) over 3 consecutive years. Semen samples were collected once or three times from all bears by ultrasound-guided UC or electroejaculation (EE) under general anesthesia, and their characteristics, including sperm motility, were evaluated. The day of semen collection was defined as Day 0. The semen collected by the UC method was stored at 4 °C, and sperm motility was evaluated at the same time every day for 16 days. The successful collection rates for the UC and EE methods were 92.3% and 53.8%, respectively. The sperm concentration (4718.9 ± 1526.1 vs. 185.0 ± 34.2 × 106/ml), total sperm count (1196.6 ± 955.5 vs. 100.9 ± 70.0 × 106), sperm motility score (4.39 ± 0.78 vs. 3.00 ± 1.73), viability (98.2 ± 2.3 vs. 82.7 ± 19.6), and the proportion of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (92.2% ± 9.3% vs. 75.6% ± 10.6%) were higher with the UC method than with the EE method, whereas the proportion of spermatozoa with an abnormal morphology (23.1% ± 4.6% vs. 45.6% ± 19.5%) was lower with the former than with the latter. Over the course of cool storage, there was an overall decrease in the total motility, progressive motility, and viability, although viability was >50% until Day 10. These findings suggest that ultrasound-guided UC is a useful and feasible tool for the collection of high-quality semen from ABBs. The collected semen remains viable for up to 10 days, with high sperm motility maintained for up to 7 days, when stored at 4 °C.
- Cadmium in Seminal Plasma of Fertile and Infertile Male Dromedary Camels. [Journal Article]
- BTBiol Trace Elem Res 2019 Feb 26
- The objective of this study was to investigate the cadmium (Cd) profile in seminal plasma of male dromedary camel with impotentia generandi (post-coital infertility, IG group, n = 14) in comparison w…
The objective of this study was to investigate the cadmium (Cd) profile in seminal plasma of male dromedary camel with impotentia generandi (post-coital infertility, IG group, n = 14) in comparison with known fertile males (FERT group, n = 5). Andrological examination was carried out for all animals. Semen was collected with electroejaculation and examined for volume, concentration, motility, viability, and abnormality. Seminal fluid was harvested after centrifugation and analyzed for Cd using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that sperm concentration, motility, and viability were higher, while sperm abnormality was lower in IG group than in FERT group (P < 0.05). Cd was higher in seminal plasma of IG group than in FERT group (P = 0.04). Negative correlation was found between Cd concentration and sperm concentration (r = - 0.511, P = 0.04). There was also a tendency for negative correlation between Cd concentration and the testicular size (r = - 0.455, P = 0.05). In conclusion, Cd may be one of factors causing infertility in male dromedary camels.
- Fertility preservation in male patients with cancer. [Review]
- BPBest Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2019; 55:59-66
- Advances in the treatment of cancer in young patients have led to great improvements in life expectancy, which currently approaches 80% 5-year survival rate. As a result, fertility preservation and d…
Advances in the treatment of cancer in young patients have led to great improvements in life expectancy, which currently approaches 80% 5-year survival rate. As a result, fertility preservation and desire for paternity have become a significant issue in this group. However, a major concern is the negative impact of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the malignancy itself on fertility. Thus, men about to have treatment for malignant conditions may have sperm cryopreserved before commencing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Ejaculated sperm cryopreservation is the most common technique used. Some patients with cancer may present initially with oligospermia or azoospermia. In cases when a sample is not produced due to medical, social, or religious reasons, sperm can be retrieved using penile vibratory stimulation, electroejaculation, or testicular sperm extraction. Fertility preservation in prepubertal boys presents a great challenge, as sperm banking is not possible. Alternative strategies have been developed, but all are currently experimental.
- Analysis of metabolic flux in felid spermatozoa using metabolomics and 13C-based fluxomics†. [Journal Article]
- BRBiol Reprod 2019 May 01; 100(5):1261-1274
- Spermatozoa from three feline species-the domestic cat (Felis catus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), and the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)-were analyzed using metabolomic profiling and 13C-bas…
Spermatozoa from three feline species-the domestic cat (Felis catus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), and the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)-were analyzed using metabolomic profiling and 13C-based fluxomics to address questions raised regarding their energy metabolism. Metabolic profiles and utilization of 13C-labeled energy substrates were detected and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Spermatozoa were collected by electroejaculation and incubated in media supplemented with 1.0 mM [U13C]-glucose, [U13C]-fructose, or [U13C]-pyruvate. Evaluation of intracellular metabolites following GC-MS analysis revealed the uptake and utilization of labeled glucose and fructose in sperm, as indicated by the presence of heavy ions in glycolytic products lactate and pyruvate. Despite evidence of substrate utilization, neither glucose nor fructose had an effect on the sperm motility index of ejaculated spermatozoa from any of the three felid species, and limited entry of pyruvate derived from these hexose substrates into mitochondria and the tricarboxylic acid cycle was detected. However, pathway utilization was species-specific for the limited number of individuals (four to seven males per species) assessed in these studies. An inhibitor of fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO), etomoxir, altered metabolic profiles of all three felid species but decreased motility only in the cheetah. While fluxomic analysis provided direct evidence that glucose and fructose undergo catabolic metabolism, other endogenous substrates such as endogenous lipids may provide energy to fuel motility.
- Sperm preservation by electroejaculation before anticancer therapy. [Journal Article]
- SJScand J Urol 2018 Oct - Dec; 52(5-6):461-463
- CONCLUSIONS: EEJ is a safe and feasible procedure for SCP in an adolescent cancer patient who is unable to masturbate or use penile vibratory stimulation (PVS).
- Impotentia generandi in male dromedary camels: heavy metal and trace element profiles and their relations to clinical findings and semen quality. [Journal Article]
- TATrop Anim Health Prod 2019; 51(5):1167-1172
- The aim of this study was to investigate the profiles of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) in serum of dromedary camels wi…
The aim of this study was to investigate the profiles of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) in serum of dromedary camels with impotentia generandi and their associations with the clinical findings and semen analysis data. Sixteen male dromedary camels with impotentia generandi (IG group) and 5 fertile camels (FERT group) were used. The external and internal genital organs were examined using visual inspection, palpation, and ultrasonography. Semen was collected by electroejaculation and examined for volume, count, motility, viability, and abnormality. Blood was collected from all camels and serum was harvested. All serum samples were digested by concentrated acids and analyzed for heavy metals and trace elements by flame emission atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the mean heavy metal and trace element concentrations in serum were in the following descending order Fe > Zn > Cu > Cd > Mo > Se > Mn > Pb. Cd was higher in IG than in FERT males (P = 0.02). Se was greater in FERT than in IG groups (P = 0.003). Zn was higher in in FERT than in IG groups (P = 0.001). There were positive correlations between Zn and sperm count (r = 0.59, P = 0.005) and sperm motility (r = 0.57, P = 0.005) and a tendency for negative correlation between Zn and sperm abnormalities (r = - 0.44, P = 0.05). In conclusion, Cd might be implicated as a cause of infertility in male camels. Deficiencies of Se and Zn may also have adverse impacts on male camel reproduction.
- Addition of Equex STM to Extender Improves Post-Thawing Longevity of Collared Peccaries' Sperm. [Journal Article]
- BBBiopreserv Biobank 2019; 17(2):143-147
- The effect of Equex STM® paste supplementation on the Tris-extender for collared peccaries' semen cryopreservation was assessed. Semen from 12 mature individuals was obtained by electroejaculation an…
The effect of Equex STM® paste supplementation on the Tris-extender for collared peccaries' semen cryopreservation was assessed. Semen from 12 mature individuals was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for morphology, membrane integrity, osmotic response, and sperm kinetic metrics. Samples were diluted in Tris plus 20% egg yolk and divided into three aliquots. The first aliquot was without any supplementation, the second and third contained 0.5 and 1.0% Equex STM, respectively. The samples were added with 3% glycerol, frozen in liquid nitrogen, thawed, and assessed for the same parameters after a thermal resistance test (TRT) for 120 minutes. Similar values were detected for the different treatments immediately after thawing, except for the amplitude lateral head that was reduced in samples containing Equex (p < 0.05). During TRT, samples containing Equex were more efficient in preserving the sperm motility (at 0.5%: 25.5% ± 4.4%; at 1%: 33.3% ± 6.3%) at 30 minutes, in comparison with the control group (16.6% ± 6.0%), in which sperm motility decreased at 15 minutes (p < 0.05). Moreover, Equex, especially at 0.5% concentration, was able to maintain plasma membrane integrity and sperm motility in all the samples after incubation for 60 minutes. In conclusion, we recommend the addition of Equex STM at 0.5% to the Tris-extender to improve post-thawing sperm longevity in collared peccaries.
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- Sexual dysfunction and infertility in the male spina bifida patient. [Review]
- TATransl Androl Urol 2018; 7(6):941-949
- Spina bifida is a congenital neural tube defect with many neurological implications, as well as decreased sexual function and infertility. Few studies have directly investigated infertility in men wi…
Spina bifida is a congenital neural tube defect with many neurological implications, as well as decreased sexual function and infertility. Few studies have directly investigated infertility in men with spina bifida. Infertility in this special patient population is primarily the result of spermatogenic defects and/or failure of sperm transport due to erectile or ejaculatory dysfunction. The severity of sexual and reproductive dysfunction seems to correlate with higher level of spina cord lesion and presence of hydrocephalus. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) have been shown to be effective for erectile dysfunction in some men with spina bifida. Surgical sperm retrieval from the genitourinary tract and rectal probe electroejaculation can serve as methods for collecting sperm from those with ejaculatory dysfunction or retrograde ejaculation. Assisted reproductive technology such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection allows isolated sperm from men with infertility to achieve fertilization. Since most spina bifida patients are surviving into adolescence and adulthood due to improved medical and surgical advancements, it is paramount for healthcare professionals to address issues related their sexual and reproductive function.