- Piloting a partially self-financed mode of human immunodeficiency virus pre-exposure prophylaxis delivery for men who have sex with men in Hong Kong. [Journal Article]Hong Kong Med J 2019; 25(5)HK
- CONCLUSIONS: A partially self-financed mode of PrEP delivery is feasible with good retention in MSM in Hong Kong.
- In vitro-in vivo correlation of the drug-drug interaction potential of antiretroviral HIV treatment regimens on CYP1A1 substrate riociguat. [Journal Article]Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2019EO
- CONCLUSIONS: Antiretroviral treatment containing the potent CYP1A1 inhibitor abacavir had the greatest impact on riociguat metabolic clearance. The impact of comedications containing only strong CYP3A4 inhibitors e.g. ritonavir was less pronounced, suggesting benefit of riociguat over PAH-targeting medications with contraindications for use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.
- Emtricitabine-induced pure red cell aplasia. [Case Reports]South Afr J HIV Med 2019; 20(1):983SA
- CONCLUSIONS: Emtricitibine is a rare cause of pure red cell aplasia.
- Switching to Fixed-Dose Bictegravir, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Alafenamide (B/F/TAF) in Virologically Suppressed HIV-1 Infected Women: A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Active-Controlled, Phase 3, Noninferiority Trial. [Journal Article]J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019; 82(3):321-328JA
- CONCLUSIONS: Fixed-dose combination B/F/TAF provides a safe and efficacious option for ongoing treatment of HIV in women. This study contributes important data on safety, tolerability, and outcomes of antiretroviral therapy among women living with HIV.
- Impact of NRTI resistance mutations on virological effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens containing elvitegravir: a multi-cohort study. [Journal Article]J Antimicrob Chemother 2019JA
- CONCLUSIONS: A switch to E/C/F/TDF or E/C/F/TAF is safe for virologically suppressed patients without documented NRTI resistance, but not recommended in viraemic patients with a history of NRTI resistance. Although we did not detect a detrimental effect of past NRTI resistance in virologically suppressed patients, a fully active regimen remains preferred in this setting due to possible rebound of drug-resistant virus in the long term.
- Lipid profile changings after switching from rilpivirine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine to rilpivirine/tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine: Different effects in patients with or without baseline hypercholesterolemia. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2019; 14(10):e0223181Plos
- Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has similar efficacy compared to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), but a less favorable effect on lipids. Aim of this retrospective multicentre study was to evaluate the impact on lipids of switching from rilpivirine (RPV)/ emtricitabine (FTC)/TDF to RPV/FTC/TAF in a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low d…
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has similar efficacy compared to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), but a less favorable effect on lipids. Aim of this retrospective multicentre study was to evaluate the impact on lipids of switching from rilpivirine (RPV)/ emtricitabine (FTC)/TDF to RPV/FTC/TAF in a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were compared at the moment of the switch and at the first following evaluation, by using paired t-test. Overall, 573 patients were considered, 99% with HIV-RNA <50 copies/ml, with mean age of 49.7 (±0.4) years and median 13.4 (6.9-22.5) years of HIV infection. In the study population with available data (431/573, 75%), mean TC changed from 173 ±1.7 to 188 ±1.8 mg/dl; mean HDL from 46 ±0.7 to 51± 0.7 mg/dl; mean LDL from 111 ±1.5 to 120 ±1.8 mg/dl (p<0.0001 for all). Neither LDL/HDL nor TC/HDL ratio changed significantly, with LDL/HDL from 2.6 ±0.5 to 2.5 ±0.5 (p = 0.12) and TC/HDL from 4.0 ±0.6 to 3.9 ±0.6 (p = 0.11). In patients with baseline diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia (TC>200 mg/dl, N = 87), there was no significant change in TC (224 ±2.2 to 228 ±3.4 mg/dl, p = 0.286) or LDL (150±2.5 to 151±3.2 mg/dl, p = 0.751), while HDL increased from 51 ±1.6 to 55 ±1.7 mg/dl (p<0.0001) and both LDL/HDL and TC/HDL ratio decreased significantly, from 3.2±0.1 to 3.0 ±0.1 (p = 0.025) and from 4.7±0.1 to 4.4 ±0.1 (p = 0.004). In this real life study, a slight increase in lipids was found after switching from RPV/FTC/TDF to RPV/FTC/TAF, but these results were not confirmed in people with hypercholesterolemia, in which lipids did not change and LDL/HDL and TC/HDL ratio decreased.
- Are Standard Doses of Renally-Excreted Antiretrovirals in Older Patients Appropriate: A PBPK Study Comparing Exposures in the Elderly Population With Those in Renal Impairment. [Journal Article]Drugs R D 2019DR
- CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of the exposure in the elderly with exposure observed in patients with different levels of renal impairment, indicated that a dosage adjustment may not be required in elderly patients on lamivudine, emtricitabine and the majority of the patients on tenofovir. Clinical trials to verify these predictions are essential.
- Carotid intima-media thickness is not associated with neurocognitive impairment among people older than 50 years with and without HIV infection from Thailand. [Journal Article]AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019AR
- Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) contributes to poor quality of life among HIV-positive individuals. Cardiovascular risk factors, including the predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) , are reported to be associated with NCI. Data on NCI and its association with cIMT among HIV-positive are limited, especially in Asians populations. We aimed to determine the …
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) contributes to poor quality of life among HIV-positive individuals. Cardiovascular risk factors, including the predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) , are reported to be associated with NCI. Data on NCI and its association with cIMT among HIV-positive are limited, especially in Asians populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of NCI and its association with cIMT among HIV-positive and HIV-negative aging Thai individuals. Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Thai version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) with a cut-off of <25/30 for diagnosis of NCI. Depression was evaluated by PHQ-9 Patient Depression Questionnaire, with scores > 5 indicating depression. cIMT measurement was performed by experienced neurologists and abnormal cIMT was defined as cIMT ≥0.9 mm or presence of carotid plaques. Among 340 well suppressed and aging HIV-positive and 102 matched HIV-negative matched aging participants, the median age (IQR) was 55 (52-59) years and 61.5% were males. For HIV positive group, the median duration on antiretroviral therapy was 18.3 years with median CD4 of 615.5 cells/mm3, and 97.4% had current plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL. The most common antiretroviral agents used were tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (76.8%), lamivudine (70.3%), efavirenz (26.7%), and emtricitabine (23.8%). HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants performed comparably between each domain and had comparable prevalence of NCI (59.4% vs 61.7%, p=0.69). However, the HIV-positive group had a high prevalence of depression (24.71% versus 13.73%, p=0.019). HIV-positive status (aOR 0.91; 95%CI 0.57-1.47, p=0.71) and cIMT (aOR 1.17; 95%CI 0.77-1.79, p=0.47) were not significantly associated with NCI. Given the high prevalence of NCI and depression among aging HIV-positive individuals, routine screening for NCI and depression should be integrated into the HIV care services.
- Factors associated with the informal use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in Germany: a cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]J Int AIDS Soc 2019; 22(10):e25395JI
- CONCLUSIONS: Informal PrEP use was associated with a higher risk of not getting tested before and during PrEP use, which could lead to HIV infections resistant to tenofovir and emtricitabine if people with undiagnosed HIV use PrEP. Health insurance plans that cover PrEP and the accompanying routine tests could ensure adequate medical supervision of PrEP users and reduce barriers to PrEP use. Our findings strongly support the implementation of PrEP programmes in countries with similar patterns of informal PrEP use.
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- Dolutegravir/lamivudine (Dovato)--a two-drug complete regimen for HIV-1 infection. [Journal Article]Med Lett Drugs Ther 2019; 61(1579):134-136ML