- Embryonic exposure to soil samples from a gangue stacking area induces thyroid hormone disruption in zebrafish. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Jul 19; 236:124337
- The total accumulative stockpiles of gangue from long-term coal mining exceed 1 billion tons and occupy 182 square kilometers, and 50 million tons of additional gangue are generated per year in Shanx…
The total accumulative stockpiles of gangue from long-term coal mining exceed 1 billion tons and occupy 182 square kilometers, and 50 million tons of additional gangue are generated per year in Shanxi, a major energy province in China. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposure to village soils affected by gangue stacking would disrupt thyroid hormone system homeostasis and eventually affect endocrine system and development, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism. The zebrafish embryos were exposed to village soil leachates at 0, 1:9, 1:3 and 1:1 from 1 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and the sample caused a dose-dependent increase in the mortality and malformation rate, and decrease in the heart rate, hatching rate and body length of zebrafish larvae. Importantly, the soil leachate alleviated the whole-body triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels at higher concentrations, and altered the expression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis-regulating genes crh, trh, tshβ, nis, tg, nkx2.1, pax8, hhex, ttr, dio1, dio2, ugt1ab, trα, and trβ and the PAH exposure-related genes ahr2 and cyp1a. These findings highlight the potential risk of thyroid hormone disruption and developmental toxicity from soil samples around coal gangue stacking areas.
- A new method for automatic counting of ovarian follicles on whole slide histological images based on convolutional neural network. [Journal Article]
- CBComput Biol Med 2019 Jul 09; 112:103350
- The ovary is a complex endocrine organ that shows significant structural and functional changes in the female reproductive system over recurrent cycles. There are different types of follicles in the …
The ovary is a complex endocrine organ that shows significant structural and functional changes in the female reproductive system over recurrent cycles. There are different types of follicles in the ovarian tissue. The reproductive potential of each individual depends on the numbers of these follicles. However, genetic mutations, toxins, and some specific drugs have an effect on follicles. To determine these effects, it is of great importance to count the follicles. The number of follicles in the ovary is usually counted manually by experts, which is a tedious, time-consuming and intense process. In some cases, the experts count the follicles in a subjective way due to their knowledge. In this study, for the first time, a method has been proposed for automatically counting the follicles of ovarian tissue. Our method primarily involves filter-based segmentation applied to whole slide histological images, based on a convolutional neural network (CNN). A new method is also proposed to eliminate the noise that occurs after the segmentation process and to determine the boundaries of the follicles. Finally, the follicles whose boundaries are determined are classified. To evaluate its performance, the results of the proposed method were compared with those obtained by two different experts and the results of the Faster R-CNN model. The number of follicles obtained by the proposed method was very close to the number of follicles counted by the experts. It was also found that the proposed method was much more successful than the Faster R-CNN model.
- Effects of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) on regulation of hemocyte intracellular signaling pathway and phagocytosis in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jul 19
- Shrimps like other arthropods rely on innate immune system, and may have some form of adaptive immunity in defending against pathogens. Phagocytosis is one of the oldest cellular processes, serving a…
Shrimps like other arthropods rely on innate immune system, and may have some form of adaptive immunity in defending against pathogens. Phagocytosis is one of the oldest cellular processes, serving as a development process, a feeding mechanism and especially as a key defense reaction in innate immunity of all multicellular organisms. It is confirmed that crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is one of the most important neuropeptides produced by Neuro-endocrine Immune (NEI) regulatory network, which undertake important roles in various biological processes, especially in immune function and stress response. In this study, the recombinant Litopenaeus vannamei CHH (rLvCHH) was obtained from a bacterial expression system and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the mechanism of phagocytosis after rLvCHH injection was investigated. The results showed that the contents of adenylyl cyclase (AC), phospholipase C (PLC) and calmodulin (CaM) was increased significantly after rLvCHH injection. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of NF-kB family members (relish and dorsal) and phagocytosis-related proteins were basically overexpressed after rLvCHH stimulation, while the expression level of NF-kB repressing factor (NKRF) gene was down-regulated significantly. Eventually, the total hemocyte count and phagocytic activity of hemocyte were dramatically enhanced within 3 h. Collectively, these results indicate that shrimps L. vannamei could carry out a simple but 'smart' NEI regulation through the action of neuroendocrine factors, which could couple with their receptors and trigger the downstream signaling pathways during the phagocytic responses of hemocytes.
- Control performance of fish short term reproduction assays with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). [Journal Article]
- RTRegul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Jul 19; :104424
- The fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is an in vivo screen to assess potential interactions with the fish endocrine system. After a 21-day exposure period vitellogenin (VTG) and secondary se…
The fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is an in vivo screen to assess potential interactions with the fish endocrine system. After a 21-day exposure period vitellogenin (VTG) and secondary sexual characteristics are measured in males and females. Egg production and fertility are also monitored daily throughout the test. This paper presents data from 49 studies performed to satisfy test orders from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Data Evaluation Records were used to collate the typical control variability and performance of test parameters in FSTRAs conducted in different laboratories with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). We also examine the statistical power of FSTRA endpoints and assess whether available historical control data (HCD) assist evidence-based interpretation of the endpoints. Statistically significant inter-laboratory differences were found for all endpoints except survival. HCD could therefore be usefully developed on a laboratory-by-laboratory basis to aid interpretation of new study data. Reliable HCD ranges could be developed for survival, body weight/length, gonadal somatic index, fertilisation success, and male tubercle score, and used in association with stated test acceptability criteria to interpret FSTRA data. In contrast, high intra- and inter-laboratory control variability for VTG and fecundity means that HCD for these endpoints are of limited use during study interpretation.
- Cardiovascular Health in a National Sample of Venezuelan Subjects Assessed According to the AHA Score: The EVESCAM. [Journal Article]
- GHGlob Heart 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of ideal CHS was observed in Venezuelan adults compared with other reports; however, a large proportion remain with high risk for cardiovascular disease.
- Unusual metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma: analysis of 36 cases. [Journal Article]
- EEndocrine 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of UM was low; they were frequently metachronic and RAI-refractory. Although UM were found in patients with widespread disease, their diagnosis usually led to changes in therapy. UM were associated with poor prognosis and high frequency of disease-specific mortality.
- Bone and body composition response to testosterone therapy vary according to polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 gene. [Journal Article]
- EEndocrine 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that CYP19A1 SNPs influence response to testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men, highlighting the importance of genetic profiling in therapeutics even for common clinical conditions.
- Patient Preferences for Breast Cancer Treatment Interventions: A Systematic Review of Discrete Choice Experiments. [Review]
- PPatient 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relative lack of evidence in this specific context, our review shows that breast cancer patients naturally value greater benefit and, in scenarios of advanced and metastatic disease, are willing to face risks of some side effects for gains in survival.
- Effects of Dietary Supplement Containing Melatonin on Reproductive Activity in Male Golden Hamsters. [Journal Article]
- DRDev Reprod 2019; 23(2):101-110
- Melatonin is a pineal hormone that is synthesized and released at night under the light and dark cycles of a day. Its effects on the reproductive activities have well been established by the administ…
Melatonin is a pineal hormone that is synthesized and released at night under the light and dark cycles of a day. Its effects on the reproductive activities have well been established by the administration through various routes in photoperiodic animals. It was also identified in plants and named phytomelatonin. The capacity of the phytomelatonin was investigated in this investigation whether it affects the reproductive function in male golden hamster. As expected, animals housed in long photoperiod (long photoperiod, LP>12.5 hours of lights in a day) had large testes and animals kept in short photoperiod (SP≦12.5 hours of lights in a day) showed remarkably reduced testes. The dietary supplement with melatonin itself induced the complete involution of testes. Pistachios that were reported to contain a large amount of melatonin demonstrated no effects at all in male golden hamsters. These results suggest that dietary supplement containing melatonin-rich foodstuff used in this investigation may not be enough to affect the reproductive endocrine system in male golden hamsters.
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- Adverse Effect of Nonylphenol on the Reproductive System in F1 Male Mice: A Subchronic Low-Dose Exposure Model. [Journal Article]
- DRDev Reprod 2019; 23(2):93-99
- Nonylphenols (NPs) are widely used industrial materials, and are considered as potent endocrine disrupting chemical. Present study was undertaken to clarify the effect of subchronic low-dose NP expos…
Nonylphenols (NPs) are widely used industrial materials, and are considered as potent endocrine disrupting chemical. Present study was undertaken to clarify the effect of subchronic low-dose NP exposure to F1 generation male mice. Mice were divided into 2 groups; (1) CON, control animals and (2) NP-50 (50 μg/L), animals were treated with NP via drinking water. NP exposures were continuously conducted from parental pre-mating period until the postnatal day (PND) 55 of F1 offsprings. Mice were sacrificed on PND 55 and the tissue weights were measured. The initial body weights (at PND 21) and terminal body weights (PND 55) of the NP-50 animals were significantly lower than those of control animals (p<0.05). NP exposure induced a significant increase in the absolute weight of the testes (p<0.05). Conversely, the NP exposure caused significant decrease in the absolute weights of the epididymis (p<0.01), prostate (p<0.05) and seminal vesicle (p<0.05). Histopathological studies revealed that NP-treated animals exerted decreased seminiferous tubule diameters, reduced luminal area, and lower number of germ cells. Also some sloughing morphologies in the tubules were observed. In the caudal epididymis, fewer mature sperms and swollen epithelial cells were found in the NP-treated group. Our results confirmed that the subchronic low-dose NP exposure altered some male parameters and induced histopathological abnormalities in testis and epididymis of F1 mice. Since the NP dose used in this study is close to the average human daily NP exposure, our results could provide practically meaningful understanding of adverse effect of EDC in human.