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Unbound Medicine.
(endothermy)
393 results
  • Universal metabolic constraints shape the evolutionary ecology of diving in animals. [Journal Article]
    Proc Biol Sci. 2020 May 27; 287(1927):20200488.Verberk WCEP, Calosi P, … Bilton DT
  • Diving as a lifestyle has evolved on multiple occasions when air-breathing terrestrial animals invaded the aquatic realm, and diving performance shapes the ecology and behaviour of all air-breathing aquatic taxa, from small insects to great whales. Using the largest dataset yet assembled, we show that maximum dive duration increases predictably with body mass in both ectotherms and endotherms. Co…
  • Key steps in the evolution of mammalian movement: a prolegomenal essay. [Review]
    Neuroscience. 2020 May 21 [Online ahead of print]Brownstone RM
  • Rich repertoires of movements underlie the complex social interactions of mammals. The building blocks, or syllables, of these movements are produced by spinal cord circuits that are comprised of diverse neuronal types that control musculoskeletal systems comprised of multi-segmented limbs. Together, these systems provide mammals with the evolutionary advantages of power, speed, and endurance. He…
  • Is Endothermy an Evolutionary By-Product? [Review]
    Trends Ecol Evol. 2020 Jun; 35(6):503-511.Seebacher F
  • Endothermy alters the energetic relationships between organisms and their environment and thereby influences fundamental niches. Endothermy is closely tied to energy metabolism. Regulation of energy balance is indispensable for all life and regulatory pathways increase in complexity from bacteria to vertebrates. Increasing complexity of metabolic networks also increase the probability for endothe…
  • Parental Care, Destabilizing Selection, and the Evolution of Tetrapod Endothermy. [Journal Article]
    Physiology (Bethesda). 2020 May 01; 35(3):160-176.Farmer CG
  • Parental care has evolved convergently an extraordinary number of times among tetrapods that reproduce terrestrially, suggesting strong positive selection for this behavior in the terrestrial environment. This review speculates that destabilizing selection on parental care, and especially embryo incubation, drove the convergent evolution of many tetrapod traits, including endothermy.
  • Small Tropical Mammals Can Take the Heat: High Upper Limits of Thermoneutrality in a Bornean Treeshrew. [Journal Article]
    Physiol Biochem Zool. 2020 May/Jun; 93(3):199-209.Thonis A, Ceballos RM, … Levesque DL
  • Tropical ectotherms are generally believed to be more vulnerable to global heating than temperate species. Currently, however, we have insufficient knowledge of the thermoregulatory physiology of equatorial tropical mammals, particularly of small diurnal mammals, to enable similar predictions. In this study, we measured the resting metabolic rates (via oxygen consumption) of wild-caught lesser tr…
  • The Respiratory Metabolism of Polistes biglumis, a Paper Wasp from Mountainous Regions. [Journal Article]
    Insects. 2020 Mar 04; 11(3)Kovac H, Käfer H, Stabentheiner A
  • European Polistine wasps inhabit mainly temperate and warm climate regions. However, the paper wasp Polistes biglumis represents an exception; it resides in mountainous areas, e.g., in the Alps and in the Apennines. In these habitats, the wasps are exposed to a broad temperature range during their lifetime. We investigated whether they developed adaptations in their metabolism to their special cl…
  • Ontogenesis of evolved changes in respiratory physiology in deer mice native to high altitude. [Journal Article]
    J Exp Biol. 2020 Mar 11; 223(Pt 5)Ivy CM, Greaves MA, … Scott GR
  • High-altitude environments are cold and hypoxic, and many high-altitude natives have evolved changes in respiratory physiology that improve O2 uptake in hypoxia as adults. Altricial mammals undergo a dramatic metabolic transition from ectothermy to endothermy in early post-natal life, which may influence the ontogenetic development of respiratory traits at high altitude. We examined the developme…
  • White mouse pups can use torpor for energy conservation. [Journal Article]
    J Comp Physiol B. 2020 Mar; 190(2):253-259.Renninger M, Sprau L, Geiser F
  • White mice are ubiquitous laboratory animals and have been extensively studied. To reveal potential undiscovered traits, we tested the hypothesis that during development, when heat loss in mouse pups is high, they can use daily torpor for energy conservation. We determined at what age individual mouse pups are able to defend their body temperature at room temperature (ambient temperature, Ta = 20…
  • The relationship between genome size and metabolic rate in extant vertebrates. [Journal Article]
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Mar 02; 375(1793):20190146.Gardner JD, Laurin M, Organ CL
  • Genome size has long been hypothesized to affect the metabolic rate in various groups of animals. The mechanism behind this proposed association is the nucleotypic effect, in which large nucleus and cell sizes influence cellular metabolism through surface area-to-volume ratios. Here, we provide a review of the recent literature on the relationship between genome size and metabolic rate. We also c…
  • The evolution of mechanisms involved in vertebrate endothermy. [Journal Article]
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Mar 02; 375(1793):20190136.Legendre LJ, Davesne D
  • Endothermy, i.e. the endogenous production of metabolic heat, has evolved multiple times among vertebrates, and several strategies of heat production have been studied extensively by physiologists over the course of the twentieth century. The independent acquisition of endothermy by mammals and birds has been the subject of many hypotheses regarding their origin and associated evolutionary constr…
  • Importance of adipocyte browning in the evolution of endothermy. [Journal Article]
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Mar 02; 375(1793):20190134.Jastroch M, Seebacher F
  • Endothermy changes the relationship between organisms and their environment fundamentally, and it is therefore of major ecological and evolutionary significance. Endothermy is characterized by non-shivering thermogenesis, that is metabolic heat production in the absence of muscular activity. In many eutherian mammals, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an evolutionary innovation that facilitates non-s…
  • Shrinking dinosaurs and the evolution of endothermy in birds. [Journal Article]
    Sci Adv. 2020 Jan; 6(1):eaaw4486.Rezende EL, Bacigalupe LD, … Bozinovic F
  • The evolution of endothermy represents a major transition in vertebrate history, yet how and why endothermy evolved in birds and mammals remains controversial. Here, we combine a heat transfer model with theropod body size data to reconstruct the evolution of metabolic rates along the bird stem lineage. Results suggest that a reduction in size constitutes the path of least resistance for endother…
  • The role of the red blood cell and platelet in the evolution of mammalian and avian endothermy. [Review]
    J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2019 Dec 04 [Online ahead of print]Soslau G
  • This review presents evidence to support the hypothesis that the reduced O2 during the Permian/Triassic period was the impetus for the evolutionary selection of endothermic animals. The evolution of smaller red blood cells with greater surface areas along with increased: capillary density, capillary surface area, hematocrits, blood pressure, blood flow rates, and shear rates were critical for eff…
  • Tnni3k alleles influence ventricular mononuclear diploid cardiomyocyte frequency. [Journal Article]
    PLoS Genet. 2019 10; 15(10):e1008354.Gan P, Patterson M, … Sucov HM
  • Recent evidence implicates mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes as a proliferative and regenerative subpopulation of the postnatal heart. The number of these cardiomyocytes is a complex trait showing substantial natural variation among inbred mouse strains based on the combined influences of multiple polymorphic genes. One gene confirmed to influence this parameter is the cardiomyocyte-specific kin…
  • Obligatory Nocturnalism in Triassic Archaic Mammals: Preservation of Sperm Quality? [Journal Article]
    Physiol Biochem Zool. 2019 Nov/Dec; 92(6):544-553.Lovegrove BG
  • Archaic mammals became exclusively nocturnal by the Late Triassic, and today, the majority of extant mammals remain nocturnal. Although there is ample morphological and physiological evidence supporting Late Mesozoic nocturnalism, a succinct hypothesis for why mammals became nocturnal remains elusive. Here, I propose a hypothesis that, with the onset of body size miniaturization in the Triassic a…
  • Thermoregulatory syndromes of two sympatric dung beetles with low energy costs. [Journal Article]
    J Insect Physiol. 2019 Oct; 118:103945.Verdú JR, Cortez V, … Giménez-Gómez V
  • In heterotherm insects, endothermy implies a high energy cost due to the generation and regulation of body temperature during different activities such as flight, food location, fighting and even walking. We studied the thermoregulation process and the cost of the thermoregulation strategies in two sympatric dung beetles, Sulcophanaeus batesi and S. imperator under heat and cold stress conditions…
  • The decoupled nature of basal metabolic rate and body temperature in endotherm evolution. [Journal Article]
    Nature. 2019 08; 572(7771):651-654.Avaria-Llautureo J, Hernández CE, … Venditti C
  • The origins of endothermy in birds and mammals are important events in vertebrate evolution. Endotherms can maintain their body temperature (Tb) over a wide range of ambient temperatures primarily using the heat that is generated continuously by their high basal metabolic rate (BMR)1. There is also an important positive feedback loop as Tb influences BMR1-3. Owing to this interplay between BMRs a…
  • Switching on the furnace: Regulation of heat production in brown adipose tissue. [Journal Article]
    Mol Aspects Med. 2019 Aug; 68:60-73.Li L, Li B, … Speakman JR
  • Endothermy requires a source of endogenous heat production. In birds, this is derived primarily from shivering, but in mammals it is mostly non-shivering thermogenesis (NST). Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue found in Eutherian mammals that is the source of most NST. Heat production in BAT depends primarily on the activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which decouples transport…
  • What determines the basal rate of metabolism? [Journal Article]
    J Exp Biol. 2019 Aug 06; 222(Pt 15)McNab BK
  • The basal rate of metabolism (BMR) is the most reported estimate of energy expenditure in endotherms. Its principal determinant is body mass, but BMR also correlates with a variety of behavioral and ecological factors that do not determine basal rate: they are byproducts of the mechanisms that are its determinate. In mammals, mass-independent BMR increases when muscle mass is >40% of total body m…
  • Invited review: Development of acid-base regulation in vertebrates. [Review]
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2019 Oct; 236:110518.Burggren W, Bautista N
  • Acid-base regulation at intra- and extracellular levels is of fundamental importance for developing animals, as it is for adults. Although adult animals exhibit well established acid-base regulatory capacities to offset acid-base disturbances, early developmental stages must develop some of the mechanisms to compensate for these disturbances. Thus, in this review we consider the multiple mechanis…
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